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Pennsylvania, USA



 


Notes: The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (pronounced pɛnsl̩ˈveɪnjə or pɛnsl̩ˈveɪniə) is one of five Middle Atlantic States in the United States of America.
One of Pennsylvania's nicknames is the Quaker State; in colonial times, it was known officially as the Quaker Province, in recognition of Quaker William Penn's First Frame of Government constitution for Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience. Penn knew of the hostility Quakers faced when they opposed rituals, oaths, violence, and ostentatious frippery.
Pennsylvania has also been known as the Keystone State since 1802, based in part upon its central location among the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States. It was also a keystone state economically, having both the industry common to the North, making such wares as Conestoga wagons and rifles, and the agriculture common to the South, producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco.
Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Philadelphia is Pennsylvania's largest city and is home to a major seaport and shipyards on the Delaware River.
History of Pennsylvania
The History of Pennsylvania is as varied as any in the American experience and reflects the melting pot vision of the United States.
Pre-colonial period
Before Pennsylvania was settled by Europeans, the area was home to the Delaware (also known as Lenni Lenape), Susquehannock, Iroquois, Eriez, Shawnee and other Native American tribes.
The Dutch and Swedes
Main article: New Sweden
The Delaware River watershed was claimed by the British based on the explorations of John Cabot in 1497, Captain John Smith and others, and was named for Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the Governor of Virginia from 1610 until 1618. At that time the area was considered to be part of the Virginia colony. However, the Dutch thought they also had a claim, based on the 1609 explorations of Henry Hudson, and under the auspices of the Dutch West India Company were the first Europeans to actually occupy the land. They established trading posts in 1624 at Burlington Island, opposite Bristol, Pennsylvania, and then in 1626 at Fort Nassau, now Gloucester City, New Jersey. Peter Minuit was the Dutch Director-General during this period and probably spent some time at the Burlington Island post, thereby familiarizing himself with the region. In any case, Minuit had a falling out with the directors of the Dutch West India Company, was recalled from the New Netherlands, and promptly made his services available to his many friends in Sweden, then a major power in European politics. They established a New Sweden Company and, following much negotiation, he led a group under the flag of Sweden to the Delaware River in 1638. They established a trading post at Fort Christina, now in Wilmington, Delaware. Minuit claimed possession of the western side of the Delaware River, saying he had found no European settlement there. Unlike the Dutch West India Company, the Swedes intended to actually bring settlers to their outpost and begin a colony.
Minuit drowned in a hurricane on the way home that same year, but the Swedish colony continued to grow gradually. By 1644 Swedish and Finnish settlers were living along the western side of Delaware River from Fort Christina to the Schuylkill River. New Sweden's best known governor, Johan Björnsson Printz, moved his residence to what is now Tinicum Township, Pennsylvania, nearer center of the settlements.
The Dutch never gave up their claim to the area, however, and once they had some vigorous military leadership under Peter Stuyvesant, they attacked the Swedish communities and in 1655 reincorporated the area back into the New Netherlands colony. It was not long, though, before the Dutch as well were forcibly removed by the British, asserting their earlier claim. In 1664, James, the Duke of York, and brother of King Charles II, outfitted an expedition that easily ousted the Dutch from both the Delaware and Hudson Rivers and leaving the Duke of York the proprietary authority in the whole area.
The British colonial period
On March 4, 1681, Charles II of England granted a land charter to William Penn for the area that now includes Pennsylvania. Penn then founded a colony there as a place of religious freedom for Quakers, and named it for the Latin sylvania meaning "Penn's woods".
A large tract of land north and west of Philadelphia, in Montgomery, Chester, and Delaware Counties, was settled by Welsh Quakers and called the "Welsh Tract". Even today many cities and towns in that area bear the names of Welsh municipalities.
The western portions of Pennsylvania were among disputed territory between the colonial British and French during the French and Indian War. The French established numerous fortifications in the area, including the pivotal Fort Duquesne on top of which the city of Pittsburgh was built.
The colony's reputation of religious freedom also attracted significant populations of German and Scots-Irish settlers who helped to shape colonial Pennsylvania and later went on to populate the neighboring states further west.
In order to give his new province access to the ocean, Penn had leased the proprietary rights of the King's brother, James, Duke of York to what became known as the "three lower counties" on the Delaware. The Province of Pennsylvania was never merged with the Lower Counties because the Duke of York, and therefore Penn, never had a clear title to it. He did govern them both, however, and his deputy governors were assigned to both as well. In Penn's Frame of Government of 1682, he tried to establish a combined assembly by providing for equal membership from each county and requiring legislation to have the assent of both the Lower Counties and the Upper Counties of Chester, Philadelphia and Bucks. The meeting place also alternated between Philadelphia and New Castle. Once Philadelphia began to grow its leaders resented having to go to New Castle and gain agreement of the assemblymen from the sparsely populated Lower Counties and so there was a mutual agreement in 1704 for the two assemblies to meet separately from thenceforth.
The Revolution
Most of Pennsylvania's residents generally supported the protests and dismay common to all 13 colonies after the Proclamation of 1763 and the Stamp Act. Pennsylvanians originally supported the idea of common action, and sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. When difficulties continued, they sent delegates to the first Continental Congress and its later meetings, and even hosted the Congress in Philadelphia.
Constitution of 1776
In late June a convention of delegates met in Philadelphia. They had been selected by the Committees of Correspondence, the Sons of Liberty, and other revolutionary groups around the state. By June, the old Assembly altered their delegate instructions in an effort to remain effective. but it was too late. On July 8 they selected delegates to meet as a Constitutional Convention. A Committee was formed with Benjamin Franklin as chair and George Bryan and James Cannon as prominent members. By September 28, 1776 the Convention produced a constitution.
The Constitution called for a unicameral legislature or Assembly. Executive authority rested in a Supreme Executive Council whose members were to be appointed by the assembly. This constitution was never formally adopted. In elections during 1776 radicals gained control of the Assembly. By early 1777, they selected an executive council, and Thomas Wharton, Jr. was named as the President of the Council. This ad-hoc government continued through the revolution, and would not be replaced until the Constitution of 1790.
The revolutionary war
Antebellum and Civil War
Pennsylvania was the target of several raids by the Confederate States Army, including cavalry raids in 1862 and 1863 by J.E.B. Stuart, in 1863 by John Imboden, and in 1864 by John McCausland in which his troopers burned the city of Chambersburg.
Pennsylvania also saw the Battle of Gettysburg, near Gettysburg. Many historians consider this battle the major turning point of the American Civil War. Dead from this battle rest at Gettysburg National Cemetery, site of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
A number of smaller engagements were also fought in Pennsylvania, including the Battle of Hanover, Battle of Carlisle, Battle of Hunterstown, and the Battle of Fairfield, all during the Gettysburg Campaign.
Industrial Power, 1865-1900
In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S. oil (kerosene) industry was born in western Pennsylvania, which supplied the vast majority of U.S. kerosene for years thereafter, and saw the rise and fall of oil boom towns.
Ethnicity and Labor 1865-1945
During this time, America saw the arrival of millions of immigrants, mainly Europeans. Pennsylvania and New York received the bulk of them. Many of these poor immigrants took jobs in factories, steel mills, and coal mines throughout the state.
Progressive Pennsylvania 1900-1930
Depression and War 1929-1950
Decline of manufacturing and mining: 1950-75
During the 20th century Pennsylvania's existing iron industries expanded into a major center of steel production. Shipbuilding and numerous other forms of manufacturing flourished in the eastern part of the state, and coal mining was also extremely important in many regions. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Pennsylvania received a very large numbers of immigrants from Europe seeking work; dramatic, sometimes violent confrontations took place between organized labor and the state's industrial concerns. The state was hard-hit by the decline of the steel industry and other heavy U.S. industries during the late 20th century.
In 1962, the Republican party which had lost the two previous gubernatorial elections and seen the state's electoral votes go Democratic in the 1960 presidential election, became convinced that a moderate like Bill Scranton would have enough bipartisan appeal to revitalize the party. He ran for Governor of Pennsylvania against Richardson Dilworth, the mayor of Philadelphia. The ticket was balanced by having Raymond P. Shafer, who would succeed him as governor, as his running mate. After one of the most acrimonious campaigns in state history, the Scranton/Shafer team won a landslide victory in the election besting their opponents by nearly half a million votes out of just over than 6.6 million cast.
As governor 1963-67, Scranton signed into law sweeping reforms in the state's education system including creation of the state community college system, the state board of education, and the state Higher Education Assistance Agency. Furthermore, he created a program designed to promote the state in national and international markets and to increase the attractiveness of the state's products and services.
The Service State: 1975-Present
Pennsylvania has suffered severely from the fall of steel and coal. Economic failure, severe population loss in many areas, closed-up factories, and much more. However, beginning in the late 1970s, Pennsylvania began to turn around and make a recovery. At every new census, the state grew faster than the previous ten years. Many new immigrants, especially from Asia and Latin America, have arrived for many reasons. Dirty, lifeless towns have become vibrant, growing places. Jobs and companies have begun transferring their headquarters to the state, and Pennsylvania has one of the best economies in the nation. With the turnaround from manufacturing, the state has turned to service industries. Healthcare, retail, transportation, and tourism are some of the state's biggest industries of this era.
Demographics
The center of population of Pennsylvania is located in Perry County, in the borough of Duncannon .
As of 2006, Pennsylvania has an estimated population of 12,440,621, which is an increase of 35,273 from the previous year, and an increase of 159,567 since the year 2000. Net migration from other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 126,007. Net migration to the state was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. In 2006, 5.00% of Pennsylvanians were foreign born (621,480 people).
Foreign-born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), Latin America (30.6%), 5% coming from Africa, 3.1% coming from North America, and 0.4% coming from Oceania.
Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics, especially among the Asian, Hawaiian and White races, has markedly increased in the last years. It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population, and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status.
Pennsylvania's population was reported as 5.9% under 5 and 23.8% under 18, with 15.6% were 65 or older. Females made up 51.7% of the population.
The five largest ancestry groups self-reported in Pennsylvania are: German (27.66%), Irish (17.66%), Italian (12.82%), English (8.89%) and Polish (7.23%).

OpenStreetMap

City/Town : Latitude: 41.109870, Longitude: -77.604710


Birth

Matches 1 to 50 of 77

1 2 Next»

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Birth    Person ID 
1 Afflerbaugh, Nathaniel Wilson  05 Sep 1836Pennsylvania, USA I449055
2 Bard, Agnes  Abt 1863Pennsylvania, USA I452662
3 Bard, Henry S.  Abt 1848Pennsylvania, USA I452666
4 Bard, Ida  Abt 1866Pennsylvania, USA I452665
5 Bard, James M.  Abt 1854Pennsylvania, USA I452659
6 Bard, Justice  Abt 1858Pennsylvania, USA I452661
7 Bard, Laura F.  Abt 1856Pennsylvania, USA I452660
8 Bard, Samuel  Abt 1817Pennsylvania, USA I452657
9 Bard, Samuel Jr  Abt 1864Pennsylvania, USA I452663
10 Barrich, Katherine  08 Aug 1786Pennsylvania, USA I452708
11 Bingaman, Alda E.  Jun 1865Pennsylvania, USA I450864
12 Bingaman, Andrew Jackson  Aug 1829Pennsylvania, USA I450937
13 Bingaman, Calvin O.  27 Jan 1867Pennsylvania, USA I450866
14 Bingaman, Clara H.  1872Pennsylvania, USA I450867
15 Bingaman, Martha J.  Dec 1874Pennsylvania, USA I450868
16 Bingaman, Theodore Edward  Nov 1869Pennsylvania, USA I450865
17 Bobb, Susanna  1848Pennsylvania, USA I450911
18 Bush, Eliza Jane  Abt 1831Pennsylvania, USA I450475
19 Castle, Floyd Andrew  20 Jan 1883Pennsylvania, USA I452499
20 Chick, Sarah Jane  07 May 1835Pennsylvania, USA I451803
21 Cramer, Michael  18 Aug 1821Pennsylvania, USA I451871
22 Culver, Burton  Abt 1869Pennsylvania, USA I452518
23 Culver, Florence Mae  11 Dec 1861Pennsylvania, USA I452513
24 Culver, Fred  Abt 1863Pennsylvania, USA I452517
25 Culver, Nora  Abt 1878Pennsylvania, USA I452519
26 Culver, Orren  Abt 1859Pennsylvania, USA I452516
27 Dickson, Mary  Abt 1836Pennsylvania, USA I451832
28 Duffy, Oliva R.  20 Oct 1894Pennsylvania, USA I684482
29 Falloon, Jane  1778Pennsylvania, USA I449871
30 Fitzpatrick, Ann E.  Abt 1857Pennsylvania, USA I452501
31 Fitzpatrick, George William  Abt 1852Pennsylvania, USA I452468
32 Fitzpatrick, Hiram  Abt 1854Pennsylvania, USA I452479
33 Fitzpatrick, William  Abt 1823Pennsylvania, USA I449637
34 Frutchey, Alfred  Abt 1828Pennsylvania, USA I450474
35 Frutchey, Anna  Abt 1869Pennsylvania, USA I450479
36 Frutchey, Clyde  Abt 1865Pennsylvania, USA I450477
37 Frutchey, Edwin  Abt 1872Pennsylvania, USA I450480
38 Frutchey, Maggie  Abt 1862Pennsylvania, USA I450476
39 Frutchey, Oscar  Abt 1867Pennsylvania, USA I450478
40 Frutchey, Sallie  Abt 1875Pennsylvania, USA I450481
41 Gibena, Eliza  Abt 1812Pennsylvania, USA I452543
42 Greenwalt, Lydia  Abt 1825Pennsylvania, USA I449180
43 Greenwalt, Molly  Abt 1792Pennsylvania, USA I449669
44 Kramer, Benjamin W.  29 Sep 1794Pennsylvania, USA I451862
45 Kramer, Catherine Elizabeth  1751Pennsylvania, USA I450265
46 Kramer, Charles D.  Jul 1878Pennsylvania, USA I449690
47 Kramer, Chrsitiana  1750Pennsylvania, USA I450264
48 Kramer, Daniel  Abt 1743Pennsylvania, USA I452933
49 Kramer, Elizabeth  Abt 1905Pennsylvania, USA I449695
50 Kramer, Emma  Abt 1870Pennsylvania, USA I449686

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Died

Matches 1 to 5 of 5

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Died    Person ID 
1 Bingaman, Yost Heinrich  13 Nov 1832Pennsylvania, USA I450919
2 Calvert, Thomas  17 Dec 1685Pennsylvania, USA I451787
3 Miller, John Anthony  13 May 2001Pennsylvania, USA I678745
4 Stotesbury, Edward Townsend  16 May 1938Pennsylvania, USA I685205
5 Taylor, Lucritia  Yes, date unknownPennsylvania, USA I446841

Married

Matches 1 to 6 of 6

   Family    Married    Family ID 
1 Baddorf / Kramer  1857Pennsylvania, USA F176366
2 Bingaman / Bobb  26 Mar 1866Pennsylvania, USA F175824
3 Bingaman / Walter  17 Oct 1862Pennsylvania, USA F175407
4 Kramer / Barrich  1805Pennsylvania, USA F176293
5 Kramer / Beyer  1791Pennsylvania, USA F176277
6 Walter / Bowersox  1829Pennsylvania, USA F175819

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