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Notes: Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America. It is the world's second-largest country by total area, and extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada shares land borders with the United States to the northwest and south.
Inhabited first by aboriginal peoples, Canada was founded in 1867 as a union of British colonies (some of which were formerly French colonies). It gained independence from the United Kingdom in an incremental process that ended in 1982. It remains a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.
Canada is a federal constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy. Comprising ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. A technologically advanced and industrialized nation, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade — particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship.
Origin and history of the name
The name Canada comes from a word in the language of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians meaning "village" or "settlement." In 1535, inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct explorer Jacques Cartier towards the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word 'Canada' to refer to not only that village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona, Chief at Stadacona. By 1545, European books and maps began referring to this region as Canada.
The French colony of Canada referred to the part of New France along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes. Later, it was split into two British colonies, called Upper Canada and Lower Canada until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was officially adopted for the new dominion, which was referred to as the Dominion of Canada until the 1950s. In fact, Canada's founders, led by Sir John A. Macdonald wished thier new nation to be called the "Kingdom of Canada", however the British Colonial Office at the time worried it would anger the Americans and requested "Dominion" to be used instead. As Canada increasingly acquired political authority and autonomy from Britain, the federal government increasingly simply used Canada on state documents and treaties. The Canada Act 1982 refers only to "Canada" and, as such, it is currently the only legal (and bilingual) name. This was reflected again in 1982 with the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
Main articles: History of Canada and Timeline of Canadian history
Aboriginal tradition holds that the First Peoples inhabited parts of Canada since the dawn of time. Archaeological studies support a human presence in northern Yukon to 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario to 9,500 years ago. Europeans first arrived when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows circa AD 1000.
The next Europeans to explore Canada's Atlantic coast included John Cabot in 1497 for England and Jacques Cartier in 1534 for France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. Among French colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley, Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade.
The English established fishing outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and colonized the Thirteen Colonies to the south. A series of four Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded all of New France to Britain following the Seven Years' War.
The Royal Proclamation (1763) carved the Province of Quebec out of New France and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. It also restricted the language and religious rights of French Canadians. In 1769, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony. To avert conflict in Quebec, the Quebec Act of 1774 expanded Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley, and re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law in Quebec; it angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, helping to fuel the American Revolution. The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the Unites States. Approximately 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States to Canada. New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia to recognize Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec , the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada and English-speaking Upper Canada, granting each their own elected Legislative Assembly.
Canada was a major front in the War of 1812 between the United States and British Empire. Its defence contributed to a sense of unity among British North Americans. Large-scale immigration to Canada began in 1815 from Britain and Ireland. The timber industry would also surpass the fur trade in importance in the early 1800s.
The desire for Responsible Government resulted in the aborted Rebellions of 1837. As a result, The Durham Report(1839) recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into British culture. The Act of Union (1840) merged The Canadas into a United Province of Canada. French and English Canadians would work together in the Assembly to reinstate French rights. They later established responsible government in 1849, as would all British North American colonies.
The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel, and paving the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). Canada launched a series of western exploratory expeditions to claim Rupert's Land and the Arctic region. The Canadian population grew rapidly because of high birth rates; British immigration was offset by emigration to the United States, especially by French Canadians moving to New England.
Following several constitutional conferences, the British North America Act brought about Confederation creating "one dominion under the name of Canada" on July 1, 1867 with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories. Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had united in 1866) and the colony of Prince Edward Island joined Confederation in 1871 and 1873, respectively. Prime Minister John A. MacDonald's Conservative Party established a National Policy of tarrifs to protect nascent Canadian manufacturing industries. To open the West, the government sponsored construction of three trans-continental railways (most notably the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the North West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. Under Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the prairies, and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.
Canada automatically entered the First World War in 1914 with Britain's declaration of war, sending volunteers to the Western Front to fight as a national contingent. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain; in 1931 the Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.
The Great Depression of 1929 brought economic hardship to all of Canada. In response, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan presaged a welfare state as pioneered by Tommy Douglas in the 1940s and 1950s. Canada declared war on Germany independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, three days after Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. The economy boomed as industry manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China and the Soviet Union. Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada finished the war with one of the largest militaries in the world.
In 1949, Newfoundland joined Confederation as Canada's 10th province. Post-war prosperity and economic expansion ignited a baby boom and attracted immigration from war-ravaged European countries.
Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Québécois nationalists began pressing for greater provincial autonomy. The separatist Parti Québécois first came to power in 1976. A referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980 was rejected by a solid majority of the population, and a second referendum in 1995 was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%. In 1997, the Canadian Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province to be unconstitutional; Quebec's sovereignty movement has continued nonetheless.
Under successive Liberal governments of Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau, a new Canadian nationalism emerged. Canada adopted its current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965. In response to a more assertive French-speaking Quebec, the federal government became officially bilingual with the Official Languages Act of 1969. Non-discriminatory Immigration Acts were introduced in 1967 and 1976, and official multiculturalism in 1971; waves of non-European immigration have changed the face of the country. Social democratic programs such as Universal Health Care, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans were initiated in the 1960s and consolidated in the 1970s; provincial governments, particularly Quebec, fought these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau pushed through the patriation of the constitution from Britain, enshrining a Charter of Rights and Freedoms based on individual rights in the Constitution Act of 1982.
Economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. The Canada-United States Automotive Agreement (or Auto Pact) in 1965 and the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement of 1987 were defining moments in integrating the two economies. Canadian nationalists continued to worry about their cultural autonomy as American television shows, movies and corporations became omnipresent. However, Canadians take special pride in their system of universal health care and their commitment to multiculturalism


City/Town : Latitude: 56.130366, Longitude: -106.346771


Matches 1 to 27 of 27

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Birth    Person ID 
1 Bierman, NN  Yes, date unknownCanada I264421
2 Bierman, NN  Yes, date unknownCanada I264422
3 Blok, John Hendrik  Yes, date unknownCanada I246440
4 Brodeur, Jean Baptiste Dit Lavigne  Abt 1790Canada I448092
5 Caron, Kaddish  Abt 1780Canada I452018
6 Clough, Simon  Feb 1827Canada I452012
7 Davison, Lena  1887Canada I452766
8 Dias, Annie Maude  Abt 1852Canada I448932
9 Doney, James  Abt 1884Canada I451196
10 Ducharme, Andrew  Abt 1852Canada I447516
11 Ducharme, Louis Alexander  Abt 1818Canada I451137
12 Giroux, Mathilde Dit Mcgillis  1847Canada I450252
13 Habraken, Derek  Yes, date unknownCanada I597778
14 Hamilton, James  Abt 1867Canada I450967
15 Henault, George  Abt 1894Canada I450800
16 Henault, Steven  May 1843Canada I450797
17 Marion, Susie T.  Abt 1890Canada I452442
18 Martin, Thomas  Abt 1843Canada I449587
19 McEachern, Hugh  May 1867Canada I450971
20 McKay, Joseph E.  Abt 1876Canada I448974
21 NN, Jennie  May 1863Canada I452194
22 Norman, Miguel  Abt 1832Canada I447617
23 Pattison, George  1873Canada I522387
24 Paul, Ruby  Abt 1908Canada I452443
25 Roberger, Marie  May 1835Canada I447618
26 Short, Mary Marguerite  1877Canada I450258
27 Stewart, Alexandra  Yes, date unknownCanada I669015


Matches 1 to 39 of 39

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Died    Person ID 
1 Alkema, Hendrik  26 Jan 1988Canada I198475
2 Ballast, Roelof  Yes, date unknownCanada I213091
3 Bonen, Gerrit Jan  30 Apr 1995Canada I524409
4 ter Borg, Jacob Jan  04 Oct 1990Canada I351073
5 Bron, Ietske  19 Jul 1977Canada I153142
6 Bron, Siemon  18 Jun 1990Canada I407490
7 Brouwer, Jan  08 Jun 2009Canada I536784
8 Brouwer, Josef  13 Oct 1974Canada I536788
9 Cohen, Lyon  1937Canada I685673
10 Dieterman, Pouwel  Yes, date unknownCanada I139818
11 Ensing, Alie  09 Jan 1980Canada I694719
12 Gorte, Femmigje  1999Canada I493369
13 Gorte, Femmigje  10 May 2002Canada I524360
14 Gruppen, Aaltje  Yes, date unknownCanada I305068
15 Haaijer, Jan  19 Jun 1985Canada I347261
16 Kassies, Hendrik  30 Jun 1962Canada I319311
17 ter Laan, Hendrik Jan  28 Feb 1966Canada I545632
18 Lamain, Bonnechina  03 Dec 1958Canada I348567
19 Leroi, Joseph Noel  08 Oct 1747Canada I449356
20 Lukens, Harm  14 Mar 2000Canada I349495
21 Middel, Abel  19 Feb 1994Canada I152617
22 Oldenziel, Siebrand  Yes, date unknownCanada I156300
23 Oord, Bernard Frank  2007Canada I422028
24 Pleinis, Jacob  1903Canada I450333
25 Rutledge, Rebecca  1863Canada I449943
26 Saenen, Anna  Est 1995Canada I297558
27 Salsberg, Wilhelmina Elisabeth  27 Nov 1996Canada I347682
28 Savenije, Emilia  26 Dec 1981Canada I8712
29 Scholing, Andries  Yes, date unknownCanada I305142
30 Short, Joseph André  1886Canada I450256
31 Simpson, Nancy  31 Mar 1842Canada I448965
32 Snijkers, Maria Antoinette Odille  1961Canada I637795
33 Spiegelaar, Jan  Bef 1990Canada I518315
34 Steele, William H.  1847Canada I448926
35 van der Velde, Tjebbel  16 Feb 1967Canada I150344
36 Velema, Jan  27 Nov 1996Canada I348515
37 Wagenaar, Geertje  23 Oct 2003Canada I173672
38 Wilts, Siebrant  Yes, date unknownCanada I346442
39 Winters, Lubbert  20 Aug 1990Canada I493447


Matches 1 to 1 of 1

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Buried    Person ID 
1 Lukens, Harm  16 Mar 2000Canada I349495


Matches 1 to 1 of 1

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Emigration    Person ID 
1 de Jager, Jacob  1929Canada I526882


Matches 1 to 1 of 1

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Residence    Person ID 
1 Leffers, Hiske  Canada I71033


Matches 1 to 5 of 5

   Family    Married    Family ID 
1 Brünen / Gründel  1910Canada F71242
2 Forsten / Flik  1905Canada F93669
3 Meendering / Wake  29 Aug 1942Canada F136507
4 Paisley / Bartos  1899Canada F176185
5 Rasker / May  14 May 1941Canada F30832



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