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USA



 


Notes: The United States of America is a country of the western hemisphere, comprising 50 states and several territories. Forty-eight contiguous states lie in central North America between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bounded on land by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south; Alaska is in the northwest of the continent with Canada to its east, and Hawaii is in the mid-Pacific. The United States is a federal constitutional republic with Washington, D.C. as its capital.
At over 3.7 million square miles (over 9.6 million km²) and with more than 300 million people, the United States is the third or fourth largest country by total area, and third largest by land area and population. American society is the product of large-scale immigration and is home to a complex social structure as well as a wide array of household arrangements. The U.S. is one of the world's most ethnically and socially diverse nations. The United States had the largest national economy with a GDP of more than $13 trillion, constituting 22 percent of gross world product. In terms of GDP per capita the US ranks 3rd and 8th, depending on measurement.
The nation was founded by thirteen colonies of Great Britain who issued the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. It adopted the current constitution on September 17, 1787 making 27 amendments afterwards. The country greatly expanded in territory throughout the 19th century, acquiring further territory from France, Mexico, Spain, and Russia. The United States became one of two major superpowers due to its role in World War II and its development of nuclear weapons. The remaining superpower after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States continues to exert dominant economic, political, cultural, and military influence around the globe.
Etymology
Common names and abbreviations of the United States of America include the United States, the U.S., the U.S.A., the U.S. of A., the States (informal), and America (colloquially). The earliest known use of the name America is attributed to the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller who, while working in Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in 1507, created a globe and a large map showing North and South America. According to the Library of Congress "Waldseemüller christened the new lands 'America' in recognition of Amerigo Vespucci’s understanding that a new continent had been uncovered as a result of the voyages of Columbus and other explorers in the late fifteenth century." The designation the States is most often used by citizens of the United States when contrasting their country with other countries, especially when those speakers are abroad, as in the sentence "Things are more expensive here than they are back in the States." U.S. of A is not especially common in the United States itself, but it is heard frequently in other English-speaking countries.
The Americas were also known as Columbia, after Columbus, prompting the name District of Columbia for the land set aside as the U.S. capital. Columbia remained a popular name for the United States until the early 20th century, when it fell into relative disuse; it is still used poetically, and appears in various names and titles. One female personification of the country is called Columbia.
The full name of the country was first used officially in the Declaration of Independence, which was the "unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America" adopted by the "Representatives of the united States of America" on July 4, 1776. On November 15, 1777, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first of which stated "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America.'" The name was originally proposed by Thomas Paine.
The most common adjectival and demonymic form for the United States is American. This term is used to designate U.S. citizens who are abroad, and for cultural characteristics ("American language," "American sports") and is rarely (at least not in English) used to refer to people not connected to the U.S. The word "American" has been especially controversial in Latin America, where Spanish and Portuguese speakers refer to themselves as "americanos" and use the adjective "estadounidense" to describe a person from the United States.
History
Native Americans
Before the European colonization of the Americas, a process that began at the end of the 15th century, the present-day continental U.S. was inhabited exclusively by various indigenous peoples, including Alaskan natives, who migrated to the continent over a period that may have begun 35,000 years ago and may have ended as recently as 11,000 years ago. Several indigenous communities developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state level Pre-Columbian societies. However, first contact between Native Americans and early Spanish explorers spread epidemics that killed a large portion of the indigenous population. These epidemics combined with violence by European settlers to marginalize the Native American population in the United States.
European colonization
The first confirmed European landing in present-day United States territory was by Christopher Columbus, who visited Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493. Florida was home to the earliest European colonies on the mainland; of these colonies only St. Augustine, which was founded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés in 1565, remains.
A hundred or so French fur traders set up small outposts in the Great Lakes region. A few thousand Spanish settled in New Mexico and California, as well as other parts of the Southwestern United States. The first successful English settlement was at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, followed in 1620 by the Pilgrims' landing at Plymouth, Massachusetts. In 1609 and 1617, respectively, the Dutch settled in part of what became New York and New Jersey. In 1638, the Swedes founded New Sweden, in part of what became Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania after passing through Dutch hands. Throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries, England (and later Great Britain) established new colonies, took over Dutch colonies, and split others. Britain's Seven Years War spread into the French and Indian War that won Britain the bulk of Canada.
Several colonies were used as penal settlements from the 1620s until the American Revolution. With the division of the Carolinas in 1729 and the colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 British colonies that became the United States of America in 1776 were established and all had active local and colonial governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self government that stimulated support for republicanism. By the 1770s, the colonies were becoming "Anglicized" (that is, more like England). With high birth rates, low death rates, and steady immigration, the colonies doubled in population every 25 years. By 1770, they had a population of three million, approximately half as many as that of Britain itself. However, they were given no representation in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
War for Independence and early republic
Tensions between American colonials and the British during the revolutionary period of the 1760s and 1770s led to open warfare 1775-1781. George Washington commanded the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) as the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The Congress created the Continental Army, but was handicapped in its ability to fund it by lack of authority to levy taxes; instead, it over-printed paper money triggering hyperinflation. During the conflict, some 70,000 loyalists to the British Crown fled the new nation, with some 50,000 United Empire Loyalist refugees fleeing to Nova Scotia and the new British holdings in Canada.
In 1777, the Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, uniting the states under a weak federal government, which operated until 1788. After the defeate of Great Britain, dissatisfaction with the weak national government led to a constitutional convention in 1787. By June of 1788, enough states had ratified the United States Constitution to establish the new government, which took office in 1789. The Constitution, which strengthened the union and the federal government, is still the supreme law of the land.
Westward expansion
From 1803 to 1848, the size of the new nation nearly tripled as settlers (many embracing the concept of Manifest Destiny as an inevitable consequence of American exceptionalism) pushed beyond national boundaries even before the Louisiana Purchase. The expansion was tempered somewhat by the stalemate in the War of 1812, but it was subsequently reinvigorated by victory in the Mexican-American War in 1848, and the prospect of gold during the California Gold Rush (1848-1849).
Between 1830–1880, up to 40 million American Bison, commonly called Buffalo, were slaughtered for skins and meat, and to aid railway expansion. The expansion of the railways reduced transit times for both goods and people, made westward expansion less arduous for the pioneers, and increased conflicts with the Native Americans regarding the land and its uses. The loss of the bison, a primary resource for the plains Indians, added to the pressures on native cultures and individuals for survival.
Civil War
As new territories were being incorporated, the nation was divided on the issue of states' rights, the role of the federal government, and the expansion of slavery, which had been legal in all thirteen colonies but was rarer in the north, where it was abolished by 1804. The Northern states were opposed to the expansion of slavery whereas the Southern states saw the opposition as an attack on their way of life, since their economy was dependent on slave labor. The failure to resolve these issues led to the American Civil War, following the secession of many slave states in the South to form the Confederate States of America after the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln. The 1865 Union victory in the Civil War effectively ended slavery and settled the question of whether a state had the right to secede. The event was a major turning point in American history and resulted in an increase in federal power.
Reconstruction and industrialization
After the Civil War, an unprecedented influx of immigrants hastened the country's rise to international power. These immigrants helped to provide labor for American industry and create diverse communities in undeveloped areas together with high tariff protections, national infrastructure building and national banking regulations. The growing power of the United States enabled it to acquire new territories, including the annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines after victory in the Spanish-American War, which marked the debut of the United States as a major world power.
World Wars and The Great Depression
World War I in 1914, the United States remained neutral. In 1917, however, the United States joined the Allied Powers, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. For historical reasons, American sympathies favored the British and French, although many citizens, mostly Irish and German, were opposed to intervention. After the war, the Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles because of a fear that it would pull the United States into European affairs. Instead, the country continued to pursue its policy of unilateralism that bordered at times on isolationism.
During most of the 1920s, the United States enjoyed a period of unbalanced prosperity as farm profits fell while industrial profits grew. A rise in debt and an inflated stock market culmination in a crash in 1929, combined with the Dust Bowl, triggered the Great Depression. After his election as President in 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt launched his New Deal policies increasing government intervention in the economy in response to the Great Depression.
The nation would not fully recover from the economic depression until it's industrial mobilisation related to entering World War II. On December 7, 1941 the United States was driven to join the Allies against the Axis Powers after a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan. World War II was the costliest war in economic terms in American history, but it helped to pull the economy out of depression because the required production of military material provided much-needed jobs, and women entered the workforce in large numbers for the first time.
During this war, the United States became the first nuclear power following the success of the Manhattan Project. To bring about a quick end to World War II and forgo a land-invasion of Japan, the United States dropped nuclear weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August of 1945. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were the second and third nuclear devices detonated and the only ones ever used in war. Japan surrendered soon after, on September 2, 1945, ending World War II.
Cold War and civil rights
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became superpowers in an era of ideological rivalry dubbed the Cold War. Through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact, the United States and the Soviet Union gained considerable power over military affairs in Europe. The United States officially promoted liberal democracy and capitalism, while the Soviet Union officially promoted communism and a centrally planned economy. Both sides sometimes supported dictatorships when politically convenient, leading to proxy wars, including the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the tense nuclear showdown of the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
The Soviet Union beat the United States to launch the first manned space probe, prompting an effort to raise proficiency in mathematics and science in American schools and led to President John F. Kennedy's call for the United States to be first to land "a man on the moon" by the end of the 1960s, which was realized in 1969. Meanwhile, America experienced a period of sustained economic expansion. A growing civil-rights movement headed by prominent African Americans such as Martin Luther King, Jr. fought racism, leading to the abolition of the Jim Crow laws in the South.
Although the Soviet Union collapsed and Russian power diminished in the late 1980s and 1990s, the United States continued to intervene in overseas military conflicts. The leadership role taken by the United States and its allies in the United Nations sanctioned Gulf War and the Yugoslav wars helped to preserve its position as the world's last remaining superpower and to expand NATO.
War on Terrorism
After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which killed nearly 3,000 people, U.S. foreign policy focused on the global threat of terrorism, and the government under President George W. Bush began a series of military and legal operations termed the War on Terror. It led a NATO invasion of Afghanistan which led to the removal of the Taliban from power the closure of al-Qaeda terrorist training camps. As of 2007, Taliban insurgents continue to fight a guerrilla war. The administration formed a preemptive policy against threats to U.S. security known as the Bush Doctrine.
In his 2002 State of the Union address, President George W. Bush labeled North Korea, Iraq and Iran the "axis of evil," and stated that these countries "constitute a grave threat to the security of the U.S. and its allies." Later that year, the Bush administration pressed for regime change in Iraq on controversial grounds. In 2003, a Coalition of the Willing invaded Iraq and occupied it, removing President Saddam Hussein.

OpenStreetMap

Country : Latitude: 39.767409, Longitude: -100.370237


Birth

Matches 1 to 23 of 23

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Birth    Person ID 
1 Bakker, Mary Lou  Cal 1950USA I750508
2 Bergama, Herman  Abt 1900USA I500889
3 Boens, Alice P  29 Aug 1908USA I67888
4 Bouwman, Willem  05 Mar 1875USA I652636
5 Bruins, Fredrick  Abt 1900USA I306264
6 Evans, David  03 Apr 1923USA I11267
7 Ford, Edwin E.  Abt 1900USA I500890
8 Gould, George Jay  06 Feb 1864USA I477274
9 Heard, Danny  02 Jul 1947USA I539556
10 ter Horst, Hendricka  Abt 1900USA I306947
11 van Kampen, Yvonne  04 Dec 1923USA I15008
12 Kent, Bernice  10 Sep 1914USA I374839
13 Levin, Daniel  Yes, date unknownUSA I380626
14 Meendering, NN  Abt 1892USA I316701
15 NN, Bertha  1911USA I306949
16 NN, Janet  Abt 1900USA I306952
17 Olson, Rozella  13 Oct 1906USA I306950
18 Plummer, Mary Eliza  18 Mar 1848USA I688331
19 Scholten, Jacob  18 Dec 1884USA I68119
20 Serier, Anna Maria  17 Nov 1852USA I543061
21 de Vries, Jane  Abt 1880USA I304769
22 Wilson, Eugenia  03 Jan 1916USA I680698
23 Zweers, Jakobus  27 Jan 1893USA I68090

Died

Matches 1 to 50 of 168

1 2 3 4 Next»

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Died    Person ID 
1 Ahlers, Evert  05 Apr 1959USA I167227
2 Bamberg, Izaak  1949USA I53383
3 Behrends, Frauke  03 Feb 1978USA I750501
4 Belinfante, William Shakespeare  1870USA I118677
5 Boeckhout, Abraham  Yes, date unknownUSA I681831
6 Boeckhout, Abraham  Yes, date unknownUSA I681836
7 Boeckhout, Jannis  Yes, date unknownUSA I681834
8 Boeckhout, Magdalena  Yes, date unknownUSA I681833
9 du Bois, Jakobus  Yes, date unknownUSA I681184
10 du Bois, Janna  1919USA I681205
11 du Bois, Maria Cornelia  1930USA I681189
12 du Bois, Pieter  1910USA I681183
13 du Bois, Sara  Yes, date unknownUSA I681206
14 Borgman, Willemina  Yes, date unknownUSA I633718
15 Bos, Eja  1945USA I271028
16 Bouma, Jeanette  05 Jan 1914USA I149874
17 Broshuis, Lambertus  Yes, date unknownUSA I67527
18 Dessauer, Ernestine  Yes, date unknownUSA I279930
19 Doorlag, Hendrik  19 May 1959USA I320566
20 Doorlag, Jurren  Yes, date unknownUSA I321085
21 Dousi, Femia Maria  Yes, date unknownUSA I151097
22 Dousi, Johanna  Yes, date unknownUSA I151092
23 Dousi, Johannes Leo  Yes, date unknownUSA I151095
24 Dousi, Marinus  Yes, date unknownUSA I151098
25 Dousi, Odelia  Yes, date unknownUSA I151093
26 Dousi, Petronella  Yes, date unknownUSA I151094
27 Drenth, Hendrika  Yes, date unknownUSA I194513
28 Drenth, Jantje  Yes, date unknownUSA I194511
29 Düsing, Johann Rudolf  Yes, date unknownUSA I254553
30 Einstein, Elsa  20 Dec 1936USA I65622
31 Elias, Jacobus  Yes, date unknownUSA I681223
32 Engelkens, E.J.  29 Sep 1964USA I225328
33 Evans, David  Dec 1982USA I11267
34 Feringa, Gerhard Heinrich  Bef 1910USA I8803
35 Foppes, Janke Agnis  1941USA I164252
36 Ford, Edwin E.  20 Jun 1968USA I500890
37 Fornaroli, Cia  16 Aug 1954USA I279941
38 Frericks, Karl Henrichs  Yes, date unknownUSA I412297
39 Gaastra, Jacob  Yes, date unknownUSA I307371
40 van Gennep, Luitje  1921USA I508284
41 Germain, Andries  Oct 1966USA I281645
42 Gilleman, Cornelia  Yes, date unknownUSA I681832
43 de Graaf, Elia  Yes, date unknownUSA I633762
44 Grönefeld, Margaretha Adelheid  Yes, date unknownUSA I47190
45 Grönefeld, Susanna Margaretha  Yes, date unknownUSA I47189
46 Hardenbergh, Grietje  Bef 1733USA I191892
47 Haveman, Jasper  15 Mar 1969USA I720651
48 Haveman, Jeanette  02 Dec 1996USA I720650
49 Heynen, Gerhard Heinrich  Yes, date unknownUSA I46833
50 Heynen, Gerhard Heinrich  Yes, date unknownUSA I46841

1 2 3 4 Next»



Emigration

Matches 1 to 14 of 14

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Emigration    Person ID 
1 Aikens, Harmke  1901USA I642740
2 Doornbos, Ida Rengers  1893USA I116532
3 Fokkens, Riekel  12 Apr 1883USA I629952
4 Hek, Koop  1882USA I709809
5 Ruben, Hendrik  19 Mar 1910USA I539726
6 Star, Egbert  1883USA I704496
7 Visser, Ane  13 Apr 1913USA I663775
8 Visser, Dirk  13 Apr 1913USA I663779
9 Visser, Epke  13 Apr 1913USA I663778
10 Visser, Jelte Wiebes  13 Apr 1913USA I663774
11 Visser, Pieter  13 Apr 1913USA I663780
12 Visser, Sjoerd Anna  13 Apr 1913USA I663777
13 Vlieg, Willem  1888USA I788362
14 Wedzinga, Willemke  USA I245985

Immigration

Matches 1 to 2 of 2

   Last Name, Given Name(s)    Immigration    Person ID 
1 Melsert, Pieter Adrianus  1907USA I334219
2 Velten, Johanna Cornelia  1907USA I334218

Married

Matches 1 to 13 of 13

   Family    Married    Family ID 
1 Bakker / Viet  27 Jan 1949USA F283485
2 Durant / Dongen  1950USA F74995
3 Hauen / Viet  23 Sep 1943USA F283484
4 Horlings / Corporaal  18 May 1922USA F125190
5 Ivens / Dongen  01 Jan 1944USA F74987
6 Kampen / Parent  13 Jan 1923USA F5859
7 Kielman / Imus  USA F152899
8 McGarry / Duchan  18 Jan 1864USA F174863
9 Meendering / Witkop  1890USA F124349
10 Spinder / L.  1910USA F249532
11 Swygman / Gerber  29 Nov 1934USA F88669
12 Swygman / Ostendorf  19 May 1938USA F88674
13 Trachsel / Krenger  USA F233174

Divorced

Matches 1 to 1 of 1

   Family    Divorced    Family ID 
1 Pomp / Oldenziel  1928USA F62757

Calendar

 


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