1743 - 1826 (83 years)
Has more than 100 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||Thomas Jefferson |
||3rd President |
||13 Apr 1743
||Shadwell, Albemarle Co., Virginia, USA
||Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA
||4 Jul 1826
||Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA
||9 Siblings |
||This person is also Thomas Jefferson at Wikipedia |
||8 Oct 2017 |
||Col. Peter Jefferson, b. 29 Feb 1708, Osborne's, Chesterfield Co. VA d. 17 Aug 1757, Goochland, Virginia, USA (Age 49 years) |
||Jane Randolph, b. 20 Feb 1720, Shadwell, London, England d. 31 Mar 1776, Shadwell, Goochland, Virginia, USA (Age 56 years) |
||3 Oct 1739
||Dungeness, Goochland, Virginia, USA
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
||Martha Wayles, b. 30 Oct 1748, Charles City Co, Virginia, USA d. 6 Sep 1782, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA (Age 33 years) |
||The Forest, Charles City Co., Virginia, USA
|+||1. Martha Washington Jefferson, b. 27 Sep 1772, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. 10 Oct 1836, Edgehill, King George Co., Virginia, USA (Age 64 years)|
| ||2. Jane Randolph Jefferson, b. 3 Apr 1774, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. Sep 1775, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA (Age 1 year)|
| ||3. NN Jefferson, b. 28 May 1777, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. 14 Jun 1777, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA (Age 0 years)|
|+||4. Mary (Maria) Jefferson, b. 1 Aug 1778, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. 15 Apr 1871, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA (Age 92 years)|
| ||5. Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson, b. 3 Nov 1780, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. 17 Apr 1804, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA (Age 23 years)|
| ||6. Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson, b. 8 May 1782, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. Abt 13 Oct 1784, Eppington (Age 2 years)|
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
||14 Dec 2001 |
||Sarah Hemings, b. 1773, Shadwell, Virginia, USA d. 1835, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA (Age 62 years) |
||Paris, Île-de-France, France
| ||1. Harriet Jefferson, b. 5 Oct 1795 d. Dec 1797 (Age 2 years)|
|+||2. William Beverly Hemings, b. 1 Apr 1798, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. Aft 1822 (Age 24 years)|
| ||3. Thenia Jefferson Hemings, b. Nov 1799 d. 1802 (Age 2 years)|
|+||4. Harriet Hemings, II, b. May 1801, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. 1876 (Age 74 years)|
|+||5. James Madison Hemings, b. 19 Jan 1805, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. 1878 (Age 72 years)|
|+||6. Thomas Eston Hemings, b. 21 May 1808, Monticello, Albemarle Co, Virginia, USA d. 3 Jan 1856, Madison, Wisconsin, USA (Age 47 years)|
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
||14 Dec 2001 |
- Was elected in 1800 by 73 electoral votes versus 73 for Aaron Burr and 65 for his predecessor John Adams. Electors had two votes back then. In 1804 he defeated Charley Pinckney by 162 to 14 electoral votes. Served two terms from 1801 to 1809. During his first term Aaron Burr served as vice-president, during his second George Clinton. Under Jefferson the Louisiana Purchase was made, the biggest land bargain in history; Congress approved it and transfer of ownership from France completed at New Orleans on Dec. 20, 1803.
President of the United States 1801-1809. Principal author of Declaration of Independance Fourth of July 1776.
In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albermarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello. Freckled and sandy-haired, rather tall and awkward, Jefferson was eloquent as a correspondent, but he was no public speaker. In the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed his pen rather than his voice to the patriot cause. As the "silent member" of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786. Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785. His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington's Cabinet. He resigned in 1793. Sharp political conflict developed, and two separate parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually assumed leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Attacking Federalist policies, he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states. As a reluctant candidate for President in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of election. Through a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice President, although an opponent of President Adams. In 1800 the defect caused a more serious problem. Republican electors, attempting to name both a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives settled the tie. Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson's election. When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national debt by a third. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates, who were harassing American commerce in the Mediterranean. Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803. During Jefferson's second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen. Jefferson's attempted solution, an embargo upon American shipping, worked badly and was unpopular. Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia. A French nobleman
observed that he had placed his house and his mind "on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe."
there are more than one thousand living descendants of Thomas Jefferson by his slaves, some of whom are now considered white, whereas others are considered black.
DNA tests performed on the descendants of Thomas Jefferson's family and of Jefferson's young slave, Sally Hemings, offer compelling new evidence that the third president of the United States fathered at least one of her children as has long been speculated, according to an article in the next issue of the scientific journal Nature.
The report is based on blood samples collected by Eugene A. Foster, a retired pathologist who lives in Charlottesville, Va. The finding undercuts the position of historians who have long said that Jefferson did not have a liaison with the slave some 28 years his junior and confirms, but with a surprising twist, the oral tradition that has been handed down among Sally Hemings' descendants.
The new evidence is likely to send historians scurrying to re-evaluate Jefferson, particularly his role in the anti-slavery movement. It may also have a wider resonance. The accusation of an affair with Hemings, one of several charges considered in a mock impeachment trial staged by the Massachusetts state Legislature in 1805, was indirectly denied by Jefferson.
"Now, with impeccable timing," the historian Joseph Ellis and the geneticist Eric Lander write in a joint commentary on the new report, "Jefferson reappears to remind us of a truth that should be self-evident. Our heroes -- and especially presidents -- are not gods or saints, but flesh-and-blood humans."
Foster's finding rests on analysis of the Y chromosome, an unusual genetic component because, except at its very tips, it escapes the shuffling of the genetic material that occurs between every generation. The only changes on the Y chromosome are rare sporadic mutations in the DNA that accumulate slowly over centuries. Male lineages can therefore be distinguished from one another through the characteristic set of mutations carried in their Y chromosomes.
Foster said he began his research almost on a whim, at a friend's suggestion. He soon grew more serious, and with the help of many colleagues, has tracked down four male lineages that bear on the paternity of Sally Hemings' children. They are Jefferson's lineage, derived from his paternal grandfather; the lineages of Tom Woodson and Eston Hemings Jefferson, Sally Hemings' oldest and youngest sons; and the lineage of the Carrs, two of Jefferson's nephews on his sister's side.
Sally Hemings had other children, but they left no surviving male heirs. The Carrs come into the picture because of the story spread by Jefferson's heirs that one or the other of the nephews fathered Hemings' children, explaining their pronounced resemblance to the Jeffersons.
Foster's samples were analyzed by Christopher Tyler-Smith, a population geneticist at the University of Oxford in England, and his colleagues. They found that the Jeffersonian Y chromosome had a distinctive set of mutations, unmatched in any of 1,200, mostly European, men who were analyzed by the same method.
The set of mutations on the Y chromosomes of three descendants of John Carr were almost identical to one another and different from the Jeffersonian chromosome, ruling out the Carrs as possible fathers.
The Y chromosome of a descendant of Eston Hemings Jefferson made a perfect match to Jefferson's, but those of five descendants of Thomas Woodson were completely different.
"The simplest and most probable explanations" for the findings, Foster and colleagues report, "are that Thomas Jefferson, rather than one of the Carr brothers, was the father of Eston Hemings Jefferson, and that Thomas Woodson was not Thomas Jefferson's son."
Lander, a DNA expert at the Whitehead Institute in Boston, said Foster's evidence showed there was a less than 1 percent chance that a person chosen at random would share the same set of Y chromosome mutations that exist in the Jefferson lineage.
"The fact that Eston Hemings' descendant has this rare chromosome, together with the historical evidence, seals the case that Jefferson fathered Eston," Lander said. The evidence that Thomas Woodson was not Jefferson's son is surprising, Foster said, because of the particularly strong oral tradition that has come down independently in the five lines of the Woodson family. Woodson, born shortly after Jefferson's return from his service as minister in Paris, was 12 when James Callender, a journalist, published accusations in a Richmond newspaper that Jefferson was Hemings' lover. Shortly afterward, Woodson was sent off to live with a relative.
One of the blood samples in the study was taken from John Jefferson, 52, of Norrisville, Pa., who is believed to be a direct descendant of Hemings through Eston Hemings Jefferson. John Jefferson's Y chromosome matched blood samples taken from the lineal descendants of Jefferson's uncle, Field Jefferson.
In a telephone interview, Jefferson said he was not particularly surprised at the news that he was descended from a president and his slave. "I've known it practically all my life," said Jefferson, who is disabled and does not work. "I guess I was happy about it, but not really surprised since I've believed it all along."
Jefferson's sister, Julia Jefferson Westerinen, 64, had a more ebullient reaction. "Isn't that wild," said Ms. Westerinen, who lives on Staten Island and sells furniture and office equipment to architects and corporations.
"I've known for about 15 years, but I thought I was related to Jefferson's nephew," she said.
Robert Gillespie, a lawyer in Richmond who is the head of the Monticello Association, which includes the descendants of Jefferson's two daughters, said, "We've always agreed with mainstream historians that Jefferson wouldn't have fathered Sally Hemings' children." But, Gillespie said, the DNA results are "changing my attitude."
Gillespie said he had always believed that "Jefferson would have shown the second set of children love and affection just as he did the first set. Apparently he was a product of the 18th century, and had a double standard."
Ellis, author of "American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson," (Knopf, 1997), and other Jefferson scholars like Dumas Malone have long said that Jefferson did not have a relationship with Hemings. Ellis once dismissed the possibility as "a tin can tied to Jefferson's reputation."
Now, he said, the DNA tests have changed his mind. "This evidence is new evidence and it seems to me to be clinching," he said. Ellis said circumstantial evidence, including a quotation attributed to another of Hemings' sons, James Madison, also pointed to a liaison. "It includes the timing of her pregnancies, the physical resemblance of her children to Jefferson and Madison saying late in life that his mother told him."
Well before Y chromosome testing entered the picture, a minority of historians were asserting that Jefferson had the affair, notably Fawn Brodie, in her book "Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History." Another scholar, Annette Gordon-Reed, an associate professor of law at New York Law School and author of "Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy"
(University Press of Virginia), said she felt vindicated by the DNA tests. "If people had accepted this story, he would never have become an icon," Professor Gordon-Reed said. "All these historians did him a favor until we could get past our primitive racism. I don't think he would have been on Mount Rushmore or on the nickel. The personification of America can't live 38 years with a black woman."
The new DNA evidence is likely to renew questions about Jefferson's position on slavery, Lander and Ellis believe. "Jefferson's stated reservations about ending slavery included a fear that emancipation would lead to racial mixing and amalgamation," they wrote in their commentary in Nature. "His own interracial affair now personalizes this issue, while adding a dimension of hypocrisy."
Sally Hemings, who was born in 1772 or 1773, was the illegitimate half-sister of Jefferson's wife, Martha, the offspring of a relationship between John Wayles and Elizabeth (Betty) Hemings, a slave. Sally became Jefferson's property when he inherited the Wayles estate in 1774, and arrived at Monticello as a little girl in 1776. She was later described by one of Jefferson's slaves, Isaac Jefferson, as "mighty near white . . . very handsome, long straight hair down her back." Jefferson's grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, described her as "light colored and decidedly good looking."
In her early childhood, Hemings probably acted as a "nurse" to Jefferson's daughter, Mary, a custom in slave culture. Then in 1787, Jefferson, a widower, who was then the U.S. ambassador to France, summoned his daughter Maria to live with him. Maria was accompanied by her young attendant, Sally, who was then about 13. Sally's son Madison, who was born in 1805, at the end of his life said that his mother became Jefferson's "concubine" in Paris.
In 1789, Sally Hemings returned with the Jefferson family to Virginia. By then, Sally was 16 or 17, and pregnant, according to Madison Jefferson.
Her first child, Thomas, who the new studies say was not genetically linked to Jefferson, was born soon after her return.
Jefferson's grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, said later that the boy looked like Thomas Jefferson. "At some distance or in the dusk the slave, dressed in the same way, might have been mistaken for Mr. Jefferson," he said.
The evidence of Jefferson's relationship with Hemings will only add to a re-evaluation of Jefferson that has been going on among historians for some time, Ellis said. "The take on Jefferson for 30 years or so has become more and more critical," he said. "Increasingly, he is a window in which race and slavery are the panes."
Jefferson, as portrayed by Ellis and others, was an ambivalent figure. "He plays hide and seek within himself," Ellis said.
But most Americans, he predicted, would have a kinder reaction to what he called "the longest-running mini-series in American history."
"Within the larger world," Ellis said, "the dominant response will be Jefferson is more human, to regard this as evidence of his frailties, frailties that seem more like us. The urge to regard him as an American icon will overwhelm any desire to take him off his pedestal."