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In 1861 Charles III signed a treaty recognising France's rights to Mentone and Roquebrune. With this accord, France recognised the full independence of the Principality of Monaco, with which it signed a customs treaty in 1865, despite its lack of enthusiasm regarding Charles' establishment of a casino a few years earlier. Charles III was succeeded by his son, Albert I, in 1889.
Prince de Monaco Duc de Valentinois Comte de Belfort, Ferrette et Thann