702 - 765 (63 years)
Has more than 100 ancestors and 87 descendants in this family tree.
|Relationship||with Francis Fox|
||20 Apr 702
||14 Dec 765
||18 Nov 2009 |
||Fatima al-Hassan, d. Yes, date unknown |
| ||1. Isma'il ibn Jafar, b. 719-722, d. 775 (Age 53 years)|
| ||2. Abd-Allah, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||3. Ishaq, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||4. 'Ali al-Uraidhi, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||5. al-Abbas, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||6. Muhammad, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||7. Fatimah, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||8. Umm Farwah, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||9. Asmaa, d. Yes, date unknown|
||18 Nov 2009 |
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
- 17th Rabi' al-Awwal 83 AH - 25th Shawwal 148 AH ) is believed by the Twelver and Ismaili Shi'a Muslims to be the sixth infallible Imam (to Nizari , fifth), or spiritual leader and successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad . He is the Imam recognized by both Ismaili and Twelver Shi'a sects and the dispute over who was to succeed him led to a division within Shi'a Islam.
Al-Sadiq is said to be highly respected by both Shia and Sunni Muslims for his great Islamic scholarship, pious character, and academic contributions. Although he is perhaps most famous as the founder of Shia fiqh , known as Ja'fari jurisprudence , he had many other accomplishments. As well as being an Imam on the Shia chain, his presence also graces the Naqshbandi Sufi chain. He was a polymath : an astronomer , alchemist , Imam, Islamic scholar , Islamic theologian , writer , philosopher , physician , physicist and scientist . He was also the teacher of the famous chemist , Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), and of Abu ?anifa , founder of a Sunni Madh'hab .
As a child, Ja'far Al-Sadiq studied under his grandfather, Zayn al-Abidin . After his grandfather's death, he studied under and accompanied his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, until Muhammad al-Baqir died in 733.
Ja'far Al-Sadiq became well versed in Islamic sciences, including Hadith , Sunnah , and the Qur'an . In addition to his knowledge of Islamic sciences, Ja'far Al-Sadiq was also an adept in natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, anatomy, alchemy and other subjects.
The foremost Islamic alchemist, Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan, known in Europe as Geber, was Ja'far Al-Sadiq's most prominent student. Ja'far Al-Sadiq was known for his liberal views on learning, and was keen to have discourse with Scholars of other views.
Ab was an Islamic scholar and Jurist. He was a student of Ja'far Al-Sadiq, as was Imam Malik ibn Anas , who quotes 12 hadiths from Imam Jafar Sadiq in his famous Al-Muwatta .
Scholars believed to have leaned extensively from Ja'far Al-Sadiq:
Jabir Ibn Hayyan - known in Europe as Geber, a great alchemist.
Musa al-Kadhim - his son, the seventh Shi'ah Imam according to the Twelvers
Isma'il ibn Jafar - his son, the seventh Shi'ah Imam according to the Ismaili
Sunni scholars who either attended Ja'far Al-Sadiq's lectures or learnt from him:
Abu ?anifa - founder of the Hanafi school of thought.
Malik ibn Anas - founder of the Maliki school of thought.
Others that attended lectures by Ja'far Al-Sadiq:
Wasil ibn Ata - founder of the Mu'tazili school of thought.
Ja'far al-Sadiq developed Ja'fari jurisprudence at about the same time its Sunni legal fiqh counterparts were being codified. It was distinguished from Sunni law "on matters regarding inheritance, religious taxes, commerce, and personal status."
Ja'far Al-Sadiq lived in violent times. Ja'far Al-Sadiq was considered by many followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib to be the sixth Shi'a imam, however, the Shi'ahs were considered heretics and rebels by the Umayyad caliphs . Many of Ja'far Al-Sadiq's relatives had died at the hands of the Umayyad. Shortly after his father's death, Ja'far Al-Sadiq's uncle, Zayd ibn Ali led a rebellion against the Umayyads. Ja'far Al-Sadiq did not participate, but many of his kinsmen, including his uncle, were killed, and others were punished by the Umayyad caliph. There were other rebellions during these last years of the Umayyad, before the Abbasids succeeded in grasping the caliphate and establishing the Abbasid dynasty in 750 CE, when Ja'far Al-Sadiq was forty-eight years old.
Many rebel factions tried to convince Ja'far al-Sadiq to support their claims. Ja'far Al-Sadiq evaded their requests without explicitly advancing his own claims. He is said to burned their letters (letters promising him the caliphate) commenting, "This man is not from me and cannot give me what is in the province of Allah ". Ja'far Al-Sadiq's prudent silence on his true views is said to have established Taqiyya as a Shi'a doctrine. Taqiyya says that it is acceptable to hide one's true opinions if by revealing them, one put oneself or others in danger.
The incidents and difficulties, which come into human life can, measure and find out the extent of his energy and faith. The difficulties, which cropped up in the life of Ja'far Al-Sadiq and the patience and forbearance, which, he showed towards them, illuminated his personality and worth. Howsoever they (enemies) abused and teased him he showed patience and forbearance and admonished them. He never cursed or used foul language about them.
The new Abbasid rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their claim to descent from Prophet Muhammad (S)'s uncle 'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib , were extremely suspicious of Ja'far, whom many considered to have a better claim to the caliphate. Ja'far was watched closely and, occasionally, imprisoned to cut his ties with his followers. Ja'far endured the persecution patiently and continued his study and writing wherever he found himself.
He died on 14 December, 765. He was poisoned by Al-Mansur . He is buried in Medina, in the famous Jannatul Baqee' cemetery.
After Ja'far al-Sadiq's death during the reign of the 'Abb various Sh groups organised in secret opposition to their rule. Among them were the supporters of the proto-Ism community, of whom the most prominent group were called the "Mub are had which state that Ism ibn Ja'far "al-Mub would be heir to the Imamate, as well as those that state Musa al-Kadhim was to be the heir. However, Ism predeceased his father.
Some of the Sh claimed Ism had not died, but rather gone into hiding , but the proto-Ism group accepted his death and therefore that his eldest son, Mu?ammad ibn Isma'il , was now Im Mu remained in contact with this "Mub group, most of whom resided in Kufah .
In contrast, Twelvers don't believe that Isma'il ibn Jafar was ever given the nass ("designation of the Imamate"), but they acknowledge that this was the popular belief among the people at the time. Both Shaykh Tusi and Shaykh al-Saduq did not believe that the divine designation was changed (called Bada' ), arguing that if matters as important as Im were subject to change, then the basic fundamentals of belief should also be subject to change. Thus Twelvers accept that M al-K was the only son who was ever designated for Im is the initial point of divergence between the proto-Twelvers and the proto-Ism This disagreement over the proper heir to Ja'far has been a point of contention between the two groups ever since. The split among the Mub came with Mu death. The majority of the group denied his death; they recognised him as the Mahdi. The minority believed in his death and would eventually emerge in later times as the Fa?imid Ism ancestors to all modern groups.
Whoever attacks a matter without knowledge cuts off his own nose.[ citation needed ]
Intellect is the guide of the believer.
The perfection of intellect is in three (things): humbleness for God, good certainty, and silence except for good.
Ignorance is in three (things): Arrogance, the intensity of dispute, and the ignorance about God.
Certainly, knowledge is a lock and its key is the question.
When the believer becomes angry, his anger should not take him out of the truth; and when he becomes satisfied, his satisfaction should not bring him into falsehood.
Some manners of the ignorant are: the answer before he hears, the opposition before he understands, and the judgment with what he does not know.
Someone once asked Ja'far Al-Sadiq to show him God . The Imam replied, "Look at the sun." The man replied that he could not look at the sun because it was too bright.
Ja'far Al-Sadiq replied: "If you cannot see the created, how can you expect to see the creator?"