1494 - 1547 (52 years)
Has more than 100 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||Francois I de France |
||12 Sep 1494
||31 Mar 1547
||9 Oct 2002 |
||Duchesse Claude de Bretagne, b. 13 Oct 1499, d. 20 Jul 1524, Blois (Age 24 years) |
||18 May 1514
||Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France
| ||1. Louise de France, b. 1515, d. 1517 (Age 2 years)|
| ||2. Charlotte de France, b. 1516, d. 1524 (Age 8 years)|
| ||3. François Capet, b. 28 Feb 1518, d. 10 Aug 1536 (Age 18 years)|
| ||4. Roy Henry de France, II, b. 31 Mar 1519, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France , d. 10 Jul 1559, Paris, Île-de-France, Fr (Age 40 years)|
| ||5. Madelaine Capet, b. 10 Aug 1520, d. 2 Jul 1537 (Age 16 years)|
| ||6. Duc Charles Capet, b. 22 Jan 1522, d. 9 Sep 1545 (Age 23 years)|
| ||7. Marguerite Capet, b. 1523, d. 1574 (Age 51 years)|
||4 Dec 2001 |
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
- THE VALOIS-ANGOULEME LINE
King of France (1515-1547).
Francois I, the son of Charles of Angouleme and Louise of Savoy, succeeded Louis XII, his cousin and father-in-law, in 1515. Francois I was the archetypal Renaissance knight. As soon as he acceded to the throne, he set off for Italy and began his reign with a resounding victory over the Swiss at the Battle of Marignano and the conquest of the Milan area (1515). He then put his name to a perpetual peace with the Swiss cantons and signed the Concordat of Bologna with the Pope (1516). However, the most outstanding feature of Francois I's reign was his long rivalry with Charles V, King of Spain in 1516 and Emperor of Germany in 1519. His territories, which then encircled Prance, were seen as a threat. Francois I initially sought an alliance with the English but the meeting with King Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Cloth in 1520 was a diplomatic failure. Thereafter, war between Charles V and the king of France became inevitable and it lasted throughout Francois I's reign. The first conflict, from 1521 onwards, led to the abandonment of the Milan area by the French after defeat at the Battle of Bicocca (1522), and an attempted invasion of France by the English and the impe?rial army. The treachery of Constable de Bourbon in 1523 and the death of Bayard at the Battle of Sesia in 1524 did not prevent Francois I from again waging war in Italy but he was defeated and taken prisoner at Pavia (1525) He was taken to Spain as a captive and was held until he had signed the disastrous Treaty of Madrid (1526) by which he agreed to grant Burgundy to Charles V and waive all claims in Italy. However, once he had been freed, he refused to apply the treaty and reo?pened hostilities by forming the League of Cognac against the emperor. When a further expedition into Italy proved fruitless, peace was signed in 1529. Francois I waived his claims to Italy and married Charles V's sister in 1530 while the empe?ror left Burgundy to France. The King of France had not, however, given up his ideas of conquering the Milan area and he contacted the Sultan of the Turks, Suliman (1535). War broke out again but without any result and a truce was signed in 1538. A final period of warfare began in 1542 and the French won the Battle of Cerisole (1544). Under the terms of the Treaty of Crepy-en-Laonnais, Franscois I was nevertheless obliged to waive his claims to Artois and Flanders and give the Milan area to his enemy. This marked the end of his dispute with Charles V. Although his entire reign focussed on external affairs, it was nevertheless marked by a profound change in domestic politics, namely the introduction of an absolu?te monarchy. From then on, the king's authority broached no resistance. The Duke of Bourbon's treachery eliminated the last great feudal lord and the aristocracy then became courtiers, receiving graces and favours from the king. Francois I continued the administrative unification of the kingdom by the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterets (1539). In the religious field, Protestantism, which had long been tolerated by the king, began to be subjected to persecution, especially after the "Placards Affair" in 1534, and persecution worsened after the Edict of Fontainebleau (1540). During Francois I's reign, life at court underwent huge development, symbolising the luxury of the Renaissance period. Arts and letters enjoyed royal patronage. Indeed, Francois I was a great patron of the arts, foun?ding the College of Royal Readers (1530) and the Royal Printing Works (1539). He protected artists and attracted famous Italians to his court (Leonardo da Vinci), thereby paving the way for the introduction of the Italian Renaissance in France. Finally, Francois I commissioned the building of many chateaux and palaces (Chambord, Fontainebleau, Saint-Gennain-en-Laye) and began the reconstruction of the Louvre. He died in 1547 and was succeeded by his second son, Henri II.
The five kings who from 1515 to 1585 had assumed the crown (Francis I, his sons and grand?sons) were passionately fond of their castles in Val de Loire. With Francis I a luxury which was not yet known was going to spread to all the royal residences where he took pleasure in residing. What could be taken for mad extravagance was only, in his opinion, the best way of promulgating the monarchic grandeur and glory of his reign.
It was during this reign that the court grew in importance. Before Francis I it was made up of a small number of people. However the number of courtiers was going to increase consid?erably following the Renaissance. In order to house all these people, the king had Blois and Amboise completed which were to be the setting for famous historical encounters. At Amboise he received Leonardo da Vinci with princely respect and offered him the Castle of Cloux. Blois was the palace of Queen Claude who bore the appellation "the good Queen" and who died here in 1524. Francis who often went hunting on his estate in Chambord had the residence which best corresponds to his tastes constructed there. Dungeons, battlement towers and machicola?tions were mere ornaments. Chambord was in reality only a huge house for pleasure, the dream come true for the king of hunting.
Far from the capital which was still surrounded by walls, for Francis, Chambord and the Cas?tles of the Loire represented an escape to the co'untry while also marvellous decor for " all kinds of conquests ". It is thus that the gallant king impressed and seduced the most beautiful ladies of court - the brown haired Francoise de Chateaubriant, the blond Anne de Pisseleu, damsel of Heilly and astonished his enemy of former days, the Emperor Charles V, by offering him splendid receptions at Amboise and Chambord.
Francis I was not satisfied with his large palaces. He took pleasure in staying in the baronial residences of the Loire and bordering valleys. Out of pleasure he had added the Castle of Che?nonceau to the Royal property, a mixture of marvellous stone works, trees and ponds, where he used to go to rest and take part in the pleasures of hunting with a few intimate friends, " the little club ". At Queen Eleonor's sides, his second wife, were Anne d'Heilly, who had become duchess of Estampes, his favourite, Catherine de Medici, his daughter-in-law, Diane de Saint Vallier de Poitiers, widow of the count of Breze, grand seneschal of Normandy and his son the Dauphin Henry. This young prince, a true hero as regards courting, let himself be seduced by the matchless beauty of Madame de Breze.
At the end of the reign, far-seeing courtiers already saw