1550 - 1574 (24 years)
Has more than 100 ancestors and 6 descendants in this family tree.
||Charles de France |
||27 Jun 1550
||Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France
||20 Nov 1574
||9 Oct 2002 |
||Roy Henry de France, II, b. 31 Mar 1519, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France , d. 10 Jul 1559, Paris, Île-de-France, Fr (Age 40 years) |
||Catherine di Medici, b. 13 Apr 1519, Firenze, Toscana, Italia , d. 15 Jan 1589, Blois, Loir-et-Cher (Age 69 years) |
||28 Oct 1533
||Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France
||9 siblings |
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
- King of France (1560-1574).
The third son of Henri II and Catherine de Medici succeeded his brother, Francois II, in 1560 at the age of 10. His mother remained Regent until 1563 but was highly influential throughout his reign. With the Chancellor, Michel de I,'Hospital, she instigated a policy of appeasement between Catholics and Protestants. However, the massacre of Protestants at Wassy by the Duc de Guise' followers in March 1562 led to the heart-rending Wars of Religion that were to spread bloodshed throughout France for 36 years. The first war was marked by a number of military campaigns, the alliance between the French Protestants and England (1562) and the assassination of Duc Francis de Guise (1563). It ended with the Peace of Amboise signed in March 1563. Once peace returned, Catherine de Medici set off with King Charles IX on a tour of France that lasted more than two years. Its aim was to unite the kingdom around the king. It was also at this time that the Grand Ordinance of Moulins was promulgated with a view to reforming the justice system and extending the monarch's powers (1566). An attempt by the Protestants to kidnap Charles IX in September 1567 re-opened hostilities. The Catholics won the Battle of Saint-Denis and a peace treaty was signed in Longjumeau in March 1568. The dismissal of Michel de L'Hospital in May 1568 resulted in a third wave of warfare. The Protestants were defeated in Jarnac and Moncontour (1569) and the war ended with the Peace of Saint-Germain (1570), an attempt at reconciliation on the part of the king who planned to marry his sister, Marguerite, to Henri of Navarre. Their marriage in August 1572 was one of the causes of the massacre of Protestants on St. Bartholomew's Day which Charles IX was unable to prevent and to which he grudgingly agreed to please his mother. This event re-ignited the war and the Catholics tried, in vain, to capture La Rochelle. The Edict of Boulogne put an end to this fourth war (July 1573). Charles IX died in 1574 just as fighting was about to break out again. His marriage with Elisabeth of Austria had produced only one daughter and the crown therefore passed to his brother, Henri III, the third son of Henri II.
His many years left as a minor was to confer all his powers to Queen Catherine. Inspite of the civil war, the Court moved from castle to castle. Chenonceau remained the privileged setting for the most splendid receptions: dances, banquets, masquerades, joisting over the Cher, fireworks. The damsels of the flying squadron were the nymphs and mermaids of this fairy-like setting.
In Blois Joan of Albret signed the marriage contract between her son Henry (the future Henry IV) and Margaret of France, sister of Charles IX. This marriage was meant to be the reign of a reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants. In fact it was nothing of the kind. Each party played a game full of treachery which led to the worst kinds of insurrection. The Admiral of Coligny became too powerful. He was assasinated during the night of 24th August 1572. The horrible massacre of the Saint Barthelemy was to remain the major event during this sombre period. During the three years which were to follow, the castles of the Loire were abandoned and the weak Charles IX's reign dismally came to an end.