1577 - 1629 (52 years)
Has 15 ancestors and 47 descendants in this family tree.
||Johan Boreel |
||29 Jul 2013 |
- The manuscript commonly called the Codex Boreelianus is a Greek uncial manuscript of the four gospels in a version of the Byzantine Majority text. In the modern edition of the Novum Testamentum Graece and other works which discuss the manuscript tradition of the New Testament it has the siglum F 09. The codex is often dated to the ninth or tenth century, but palaeographically it is close to the lectionary British Library, Harley 5684 (= G), which has been dated to the beginning of the eleventh century.
According to the modern foliation it has 219 folia, but, as will be discussed below, this is not quite accurate. The folia measure roughly 28 x 22 cm; usually they are a few mm smaller. The Codex Boreelianus is not bound, but kept in a bookcase in loose quires. The beginning and the end of the manuscript is missing, the first folio begins with Matthew 9:1, the last ends with John 13:34. Quite a number of (bi)folia are missing, especially in Luke, and a number of leaves are mutilated, torn, cut or damaged (e.g. fol. 2, 7, 16, 115, 140-142, 147, 149, 150, 152, 157, 160, 171, 173, 176, 192, 199). Yet folio 122 has been repaired. A modern foliation is written with lead-pencil on the top corner on each recto folia, but it is somewhat flawed. For example, fol. 140-142 are not three separate folia, but one folio which was cut up in three parts. The numbering of a total of 92 quires or gatherings by the same hand, often encircled, is incorrect. Both are retained in the digital edition for reference purposes.
The manuscript is written in a late Greek uncial (majuskel) script, with larger images on 71v (beginning of Mark), 128r (Luke) and 179r (John). Further drawings (e.g. 170v) are rare, as are decorated initials (e.g. 110v, 180r, 181r, 219v). Headings in gold are more common (e.g. 17v, 74v, 83r), and in red frequent (e.g. 88r, 105v, 111r; 191r at the bottom). A few parts of text are erased (e.g. 55r, 59r, 66v).
Marginal texts in Greek in various hands, including the hand of the manuscript, are also common, indicating frequent use (see 24r, 27r, 33v, 53v, 55v, 67v, 68r, 83v, 101v, 124r, 149v, 157r, 159r, 170v, 179r, 180r, 190v, 200v for representatives of various examples). There are also notes in Arabic (e.g. 9r, left top corner), and in Dutch (168r, and upside down 40r and 40v).
History of the manuscript
The Codex Boreelianus Rheno-Trajectinus, as it is fully called, is named after Johan Boreel (1577-1629). He studied law and theology, and published a Latin translation of the English study on the Book of Daniel by Hugo Broughthon in 1599, and his own commentary in 1600. He was held in esteem by a number of noteworthy scholars of his time, most notably Hugo Grotius. Boreel became a pensionary of Middelburg in 1613, of the States of Zeeland in 1615, and grand pensionary (raadspensionaris) of Zeeland in 1625. He was sent to the court of king James I of Britain on three occassions, and was even knighted by the king.
There is no record of Boreel obtaining the codex, but it is generally thought that he obtained it on one of his travels to the Middle East. In fact, it is only from the evidence forwarded by Johann Jakob Wettstein that the codex is linked to Johan Boreel. In 1751 Wettstein published a revised version of his Prolegomena ad Testamenti Graeci editionem accuratissimam ... (originally published in 1730), which was incorporated in his Novum Testamentum Graecum editionis receptae, cum lectionibus variantibus codicum mss ..., an edition of the Greek New Testament based on various manuscripts. In these revised Prolegomena Wettstein mentions that his ?codex F? was based on a collation made by an unkown person. The collation was a comparison between the manuscript and edited versions, yet only for the gospels Matthew, Mark and halfway Luke. For unkown reasons it excluded the rest of Luke and the whole of John, yet the curious remark on the page which gives the number of chapters of John (see 178v) is noted and was copied by Wettstein. He also remarks that the manuscript begins with Matthew 7:6, and that only the folia with Matthew 8:25 and Mark 11:6-16 are missing, in other words, the manuscript was far more complete than at present. The collation had been pointed out to him by Izaak Verburg, rector of the Amsterdam gymnasium, in 1730. Wettstein adds that the original had been in the possession of Johan Boreel and that he was not aware of its current location.
Before Wettstein, the manuscript was never referred to by New Testament textual critics. It did not play any role in the edition of various Greek New Testament manuscripts undertaken by Erasmus (1516), Robert Estienne (Stephanus) (1546) or Elzevi(e)r (1624, 1633). The anonymous collation was his only witness, and by then the manuscript had already been out of scholars? sight. What happened to it remains unknown. Although we know that Johan Boreel?s library was sold in 1632, it is not completely sure that the manuscript was among the items for sale. It could also have remained in the possession of Boreel?s family, for example of his younger brother, the theologian Adam Boreel (1602-54). Either way, there are no clues about the manuscript?s whereabouts until it was found in 1823 by Jodocus Heringa Ezn (1765-1840), professor of Divinity at the University of Utrecht, who became rector magnificus of that university the next year.
In 1823 Heringa visited a friend and pupil of his, the preacher Hendrik Herman Donker Curtius, in Arnhem, who showed him fragments of an unknown manuscript which he had borrowed from Johannes Michaelis Roukens, lawyer and member of the city council of Arnhem. Roukens allowed Heringa to borrow the whole manuscript, who identified it as Wettstein?s ?codex F? beyond any doubt, and was thus able to trace it back to Boreel. In a letter of 11 March 1830 Roukens explained that the manuscript had been in the possession of his father Arend Anton Roukens, mayor of Nijmegen, who had inherited it from his father, the legal scholar Johannes Michaelis Roukens. It was likely that he again had inherited from his father Theodoor Roukens, secretary of the city council of Nijmegen, who probably got it from the library of his brother, Willem Roukens. This Willem Roukens was a legal scholar, and mayor of Nijmegen from 1702 to 1705, when he was beheaded. Here the trail, such as it is, ends. There is no known connection between the families of Boreel and Roukens which can explain how the manuscript ended up in the latter?s hands, nor is there any clear indication as to why this family of legal students and civil servants would have kept it in their possession for three generations. The monogram (NLB?) on 168r with the date ?9 Febr 1756? does not agree with any of the mentioned members of the Roukens family. The scribblings in Dutch on 40r and 40v are difficult to decipher, and has as yet not yielded any solid clues as to who possessed the manuscript after Johan Boreel.
Heringa studied the manuscript, and he may have left the identifications of the gospel and verse on almost each recto folio of the manuscript. Before he could publish his notes he died in 1840. His successor in the professorship of Divinity, H. E. Vinke, bought the manuscript from Roukens for the collection of the University Libary.
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