Tsarin Ekaterina II  von Anhalt-Zerbst, "the Great"

Tsarin Ekaterina II von Anhalt-Zerbst, "the Great"

Female 1729 - 1796  (67 years)    Has more than 100 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.

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  • Name Ekaterina II von Anhalt-Zerbst 
    Prefix Tsarin 
    Suffix "the Great" 
    Relationshipwith Adam
    Born 2 May 1729  Stettin Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Female 
    Died 6 Nov 1796  St Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I6715  Geneagraphie
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 

    Father Fürst Christian August von Anhalt-Zerbst,   b. 29 Nov 1690, Dornburg a.d.Saale Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Mar 1747, Zerbst Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 56 years) 
    Mother Princess Joanna Elizabeth von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 24 Oct 1712, Gottorp Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 30 May 1760, Paris, Île-de-France, Fr Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 47 years) 
    Family ID F3056  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Tsaar Pjotr III von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 21 Feb 1728, Kiel, DE Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Jul 1762, Ropscha Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 34 years) 
    Married 1 Sep 1745  St Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Tsaar Pawel I von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 1 Oct 1754, St Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Mar 1801, Mikhailovski Castle, St. Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 46 years)
    Last Modified 29 Aug 2000 
    Family ID F3057  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Graf Sergei Vassilovich Saltykov,   b. Abt 1720,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Married 1752 
    Type: Affair 
    Children 
     1. Tsaar Pawel I von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 1 Oct 1754, St Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Mar 1801, Mikhailovski Castle, St. Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 46 years)
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F22188  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 Krol Stanislaw II August Poniatowski,   b. 1732,   d. 25 Nov 1795  (Age 63 years) 
    Married 1755 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F203106  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 4 Prince Grigori Grigorievitch Orlov,   b. 6 Oct 1734, Lyutkino Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 13 Apr 1783, Neskuchnoye Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 48 years) 
    Married 1760 
    Children 
     1. Elizabeth Alexandrovna Alexeeva Orlov,   b. 1761, St. Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location
    +2. Count Alexei Grigorievitch Bobrinskoy,   b. 11 Apr 1762, Winter Palace, St.Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Jun 1813, Bogoroditsk Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 51 years)
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F22201  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 5 Alexander Vasilchikov 
    Married 1773 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F1306193  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 6 Prinz Grigory Alexandrovich Potemkin,   b. 24 Sep 1739, Tsizhova Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Oct 1791, Moldavia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 52 years) 
    Married 1774 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F22189  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 7 Peter Zavadovsky 
    Married 1776 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F1306194  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 8 Simeon Zoric 
    Married 1777 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F1306195  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 9 Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov 
    Married 1778 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F1306196  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 10 Alexander Lanskoy 
    Married 1779 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F1306197  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 11 Alexander Ermolov 
    Married 1785 
    Type: Affair 
    Last Modified 8 Nov 2013 
    Family ID F1306198  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 12 Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov,   b. 30 Sep 1758,   d. 11 Oct 1803  (Age 45 years) 
    Married 1786 
    Type: separation 
    Last Modified 16 Sep 2009 
    Family ID F291031  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 13 Reichsfürst Platon Alexandrovich Zubov,   b. 15 Nov 1767,   d. 7 Apr 1822  (Age 54 years) 
    Last Modified 16 Sep 2009 
    Family ID F291033  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map Click to display
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 2 May 1729 - Stettin Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    6715.jpg
    6715.jpg

  • Notes 
    • Tsarin 1762-1796
      born in the Baltic seaport town of Stettin, then a part of German Pomerania. Little Sophia was nicknamed Feke or Figchen. Little is known about her early life, except that which Catherine related in her unfinished autobiography years later. Figchen's mother, Joanna, was the sister of Karl August, who had been engaged to Elizabeth I of Russia before she took the throne. Elizabeth kept a fondness for him and his family long after his death. In the early 1740's Elizabeth was searching for a wife for her nephew and heir, Peter. Fidgen was the right age and a sentimental choice for the romantic Empress of Russia. Figchen and her mother were summoned by Elizabeth to Russia late in 1743. The potential match of the young German princess and the heir to the Russian throne was actively promoted by her mother and the Prussian King, Frederick, who saw the alliance as a way to further Prussian interests at the court of St. Petersburg. He eyed Figchen carefully at a banquet in her honor in Berlin before she left for Russia. He always
      claimed he saw greatness in her, even when Sophia was a child. Crossing the border into Russia she went from Riga to St. Petersburg and on to Moscow, finally meeting Elizabeth on February 9, 1744. Elizabeth was enchanted with her. Figchen immediately began to study Russian and Orthodoxy, with the end result of abandoning Lutheranism for the Russian Church, being re-christened Yekaterina - Catherine. Her husband-to-be was a great disappointment to everyone. He was sickly, mean spirited and ill-equipped mentally or physically to rule a vast empire like Russia. He was also unable to consummate his marriage to Catherine. Elizabeth didn't understand the fault was Peter's and pressured the couple to produce a son - thus securing the dynasty. When it was clear this wasn't going to happen, Elizabeth permitted an affair between Catherine and a handsome Russian officer, Serge Saltykov. Catherine conceived and bore a son, Paul, who was accepted by Peter as his own. Immediately after his birth, little Paul was
      carried off to Elizabeth's quarters and the Empress raised him as her own. Catherine and Peter hated one another. On the death of Elizabeth on December 25, 1761, Peter ascended the throne as Peter III. He quickly showed his mania for all things Prussian by forming an alliance with Prussia that was to Russia's detriment. Peter ordered the proud Imperial guard regiments to dispose of their uniforms from the days of Peter the Great in exchange for tight-fitting uniforms in the Prussian style. He followed this with the imposition of new, brutal military rules on the same Prussian model, which turned the armed forces against him. Hatred of Peter grew quickly among all classes and the country accepted with relief the coup-d'etat of Catherine, who deposed her husband on June 28, 1762. Catherine ascended the throne as the most pious and Orthodox Empress, Catherine II, crowned on September 22, 1762 with
      tremendous pomp and ceremony at the heart of Russian culture and Orthodoxy in the ancient Moscow Kremlin. Her husband, Peter had been murdered by her lover Orlov, his brother and some other henchmen some months before, and was soon forgotten. Catherine solidified her position by awarding her supporters with high government positions and grants of land, money and serfs. Catherine quickly began to make changes in government and society based on the convictions she had assimilated during her study of French philosophes of the Enlightenment and the authors of ancient Rome. She was deeply disappointed by the difficulty of imposing foreign precepts - even if they were rational ones - of government on Russia. It became easier and easier to abandon her principals. Catherine slipped deeper and deeper into autocracy - all the while maintaining the facade of an enlightened ruler. The ruin of the Orthodox church, which had begun under Peter the Great, was continued under Catherine, who seized it's wealth and turned it's prelates and priests into state employees. She built marvelous new monuments across Russia and transformed St. Petersburg into a truly European city of Imperial pretensions. The arts, music and education where patronized by her, and Catherine pumped millions of rubles into the creation of the Hermitage collection, which today is the delight of Russia and the world. No other Russian monarch appreciated beauty as much as Catherine, she set the stage for the emergence of a national Russian culture that would emerge as something unique and wonderful in the 19th century. Re-marriage was out of the question and she probably never took a husband again;
      although it has been rumored that she and a later lover, Potemkin, were secretly married in the Church of St. Samson in Petersburg. Much has been made of Catherine's libido. She has entered history with a mixed reputation due to the young men who entered her life in it's later years. Had she been a man, no one would have spoken of it, and many of the most famous tales about her are untrue. She dealt with the issue of her affairs head-on and justified it to herself as the need of an autocrat for companionship and diversion. Throughout her life she was estranged from her son, Paul, who grew up hating his mother for her condescending treatment of him and her role in the murder of his imagined father, Peter III, which he believed was more direct than history has proven. Paul never accepted the fact that his father was Serge Saltykov. The empathy between mother and son was mutual. Catherine felt Paul was foolish and unbalanced. Once on the throne he was sure to undo all of her accomplishments. He rashly boasted of this many times in Russia and on journeys abroad. Catherine planned to bypass Paul and leave her crown to his first son and her favorite grandson, Alexander. Feeling she had a number of years left, she did not make the arrangements for the transition to Alexander and upon her death from a heart attack on November 6, 1796 the throne passed to Paul. Catherine's achievements were many. She left Russia much stronger, more prosperous and beautiful than she had found it. That she failed in much she had set out to do had less to do with her and more to do with human nature. Catherine was unable to transform Russia through her will alone. Since she was unwilling to use terror or force to transform society, she chose a more patient path, hoping to gradually raise the level of culture by legislation, education, and example. She single-handedly grafted onto Russian rootstock the bud-wood of western culture, which was taken and remolded two generations later into something marvellous.


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