359 - 383 (24 years)
Has more than 250 ancestors but no descendants in this family tree.
||Flavius Gratianus |
||18 Apr 359
||25 Aug 383
||8 Nov 2009 |
- cos. 366, Augustus 367, Ks. im Westen 375-383, erklärt am 27.2.380 die katholische Kirche zur Staatskirche.
4 August 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus . On the death of Valentinian (17 November 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II .
Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces , he handed over Italy , Illyricum and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Mediolanum . The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.
The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens . In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses , the southernmost branch of the Alamanni , at the Battle of Argentovaria , near the site of the modern Colmar . Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianopole on 9 August. Valens refused to wait for Gratian and his army to arrive and assist in defeating the host of Goths , Alans and Huns ; as a result, two-thirds of the eastern Roman army were killed as well.
In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on 19 January 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (376-382) .
For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop St. Ambrose of Milan .
By taking into his personal service a body of Alans, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, after the disaster of the Battle of Adrianopole, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops . A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris , being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon . There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals, Andragathius, and assassinated on 25 August 383.
The reign of Gratian forms an important epoch in ecclesiastical history, since during that period Orthodox Christianity for the first time became dominant throughout the empire.
Under the influence of Ambrosius, Gratian prohibited Pagan worship at Rome ; refused to wear the insignia of the pontifex maximus as unbefitting a Christian ; removed the Altar of Victory from the Senate House at Rome, despite protests of the pagan members of the Senate, and confiscated its revenues; forbade legacies of real property to the Vestals ; and abolished other privileges belonging to them and to the pontiffs. Nevertheless he was still deified after his death.
Gratian also published an edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the bishops of Rome and Alexandria (i.e., the Nicene faith). The move was mainly thrust at the various beliefs that had arisen out of Arianism , but smaller dissident sects, such as the Macedonians , were also prohibited.