1684 - 1727 (43 years)
Has 2 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||Ekaterina I |
|Relationship||with Francis Fox|
||24 Feb 1684
||17 May 1727
||23 Sep 2009 |
||Tsaar Peter I "de grote" Romanoff, b. 9 Jun 1672, Moskva, Moskva, Russia , d. 8 Feb 1725, St Petersburg (Age 52 years) |
||1 Mar 1712
| ||1. Pavel Romanoff, b. 1704, d. 1707 (Age 3 years)|
| ||2. Peter Romanoff, b. 1705, d. 1707 (Age 2 years)|
| ||3. Catherine Romanoff, b. 7 Feb 1707, d. 1708 (Age 0 years)|
| ||4. Anna Petrowna Romanoff, b. 7 Feb 1708, Moskva, Moskva, Russia , d. 15 May 1728, Kiel, DE (Age 20 years)|
| ||5. Tsarin Elizabeth Petrovna Romanoff, b. 18 Dec 1709, d. 25 Dec 1762 (Age 53 years)|
| ||6. Peter Romanoff, b. 1715, d. 1719 (Age 4 years)|
| ||7. Maria Romanoff, b. 20 Mar 1713, d. 27 May 1715 (Age 2 years)|
| ||8. Margarita Romanoff, b. 19 Sep 1714, d. 7 Jun 1715 (Age 0 years)|
| ||9. Peter Romanoff, b. 15 Nov 1715, d. 19 Apr 1719 (Age 3 years)|
| ||10. Pavel Romanoff, b. 13 Jan 1717, d. 14 Jan 1717 (Age 0 years)|
| ||11. Natalia Romanoff, b. 31 Aug 1718, d. 15 Mar 1725 (Age 6 years)|
| ||12. NN Romanoff, b. 1720, d. 1720 (Age 0 years)|
| ||13. Peter Romanoff, b. 7 Oct 1723, d. 7 Oct 1723 (Age 0 years)|
||16 Sep 2009 |
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
- The life of Catherine I was said by Voltaire to be nearly as extraordinary as Peter the Great himself. There are no documents that confirm the ascent of Catherine. The commonly accepted version is that Catherine was born in Ringen (Rõngu ), in present-day Estonia . At the time this area was the Swedish province of Livonia . Originally named 'Marta Skowro she was the daughter of Samuel Skowro later Samuil Skavronsky , a Latvian peasant of Polish origin, most likely a Catholic , and who was already a widower of one Dorothea Hann. Her mother has been listed on at least one site as Elisabeth Moritz , whom her father married at Jakobstadt in 1680. There is some speculation that her parents were runaway serfs . Some sources state her father was a gravedigger . Samuil and her mother died of plague around 1684 or 1685, leaving five children. She was taken by an aunt who sent her to be raised by Ernst Glück , the Lutheran pastor and educator who first translated the Bible into Latvian , in Marienburg . She was essentially a house servant. No effort was made to teach her to read and she remained illiterate throughout her life.
She was a very beautiful young girl, and there are accounts that Frau Glück became fearful that Marta would become involved with her son. At the age of seventeen, she was married off to a Swedish dragoon , Johan Cruse or Johann Rabbe, with whom she remained for eight days in 1702, at which point the Swedish troops were withdrawn from Marienburg. When Russian forces captured Marienburg the Pastor Glück offered and was taken to Moscow to work as a translator for Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev . There are unsubstantiated stories that Marta worked briefly in the laundry of the victorious regiment, and also that she was presented in her undergarments to the Brigadier General Adolf Rudolf Bauer to be his mistress. She definitely worked in the household of his superior, the Field Marshal Sheremetev. It is not known whether she was his mistress, or domestic servant.
She then became part of the household of Prince Aleksandr Menshikov , the best friend of Peter the Great . Anecdotal sources suggest that she was purchased by him. Whether the two of them were lovers is highly disputed, for Menshikov was engaged to Darya Arsenyeva, his future well-loved wife. It is clear that Menshikov and Marta formed a lifetime alliance, and it is possible that Menshikov who was quite jealous of Peter's attentions and knew his tastes, wanted to procure a mistress on whom he could rely. In any case, in 1703, while visiting Menshikov at his home, Peter met Marta, and shortly after, he took her as his own mistress. In 1705, she converted to Orthodoxy and changed her name to Yekaterina Alexeyevna. She and Darya accompanied Peter and Menshikov on their military excursions.
Catherine and Peter married secretly in 1707. They had nine children, two of whom survived into adulthood, Yelizaveta (1709) and Anna (born 1708). Peter had moved the capital to St Petersburg in 1703. While the city was being built he lived in a three-room log cabin with Catherine, where she did the cooking and caring for the children and he tended a garden as though they were an ordinary couple. The relationship was the most successful of Peter's life and a great number of letters exist demonstrating the strong affection between Catherine and Peter. As a person she was very strong, energetic, compassionate, charming and always cheerful. She was able to calm Peter in his frequent rages and was called in to attend him during his epileptic seizures.
Catherine continued to accompany Peter on his Pruth Campaign in 1711. There Catherine was said to have saved Peter and his Empire. Surrounded by overwhelming numbers of Turkish troops, Catherine suggested before surrendering, her jewels and those of the other women be used in an effort to bribe the Grand Vizier Baltaji into allowing a retreat. Baltaji allowed the retreat, whether motivated by a bribe or considerations of trade and diplomacy. In any case Peter credited Catherine and proceeded to marry her again (this time officially) at Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg on 9 February 1712. Catherine was Peter's second wife; he had previously married and divorced Eudoxia Lopukhina , who had borne him the Tsarevich Alexis Petrovich . Upon their wedding,she (Catherine) took the style of her husband and became Tsarina. When Peter elevated the Russian Tsardom to Empire,Catherine became Empress (Imperatrica). The Order of Saint Catherine was instituted by her husband on the occasion of their wedding.
Upon Peter's death, Catherine found her four siblings, Christine, Anna, Karl and Friederich/Theodor, gave them the newly created titles of Count and Countess, and brought them to Russia. Christine Skowro renamed Christina Samuilovna Skavronskaya (1687 - 14 April 1729), married Simon-Heinrich N (1672-1728) and their issue were Counts Hendrikov; Anna Skowro renamed Anna Samuilovna Skavronskaya, married one Michael-Joachim N and their issue were Counts Efimovsky; Karl Skowro renamed Karel Samuilovich Skavronsky, was created a Count of the Russian Empire on 5 January 1727 and made a Chamberlain of the Imperial Court, married to Maria Ivanovna, a Russian woman, by whom he had issue extinct in male line in 1793; Friedrich/Theodor Skowro renamed Feodor Samuilovich Skavronsky, was created a Count of the Russian Empire on 5 January 1727 and married twice to N, a Lithuanian woman, and to Ekaterina Rodionovna Saburova, without issue of any of them
She born in small village in lithuania. She was serf until Swedish troops took lithuania from Russia. She never knew her father and she got her name (Martha) with christening. Because she never met her father, church's priest raised her until she was 14. Then she moved to Marienburg, to be maid for Gluck (he was lutheric priest). When Swedish troops captured the city, she married with one Swedish Dragoon in 1702, when she was 18 years old. But, it was short marriage, because next day Russian army eliminated these Dragoon units and she never met him again.
Several days later she was captured by Russian General Bauer and she served him for start, and after it she served Marshal Sheremetjev and Marshal Sheremetjev gave her to Menshikov. Tsar Peter I met her while dining with Menshikov family, falled love to her and married her in secrecy at Nov 8 1707. She was now wife of Tsar and she didn't know even how to write or read. But she was very smart woman and some tales tells she was a one of the important persons to make peace with Ottoman Empire in middle of the battle, in Pruth (1711). But, those tales are not true. These tales are made to praise her, because she was just daughter of serf and needed some merits. She was a ruler of Russia in 1725-1727 after her husband, Tsar Peter I died.