1714 - 1777 (62 years)
Has more than 100 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||Jose I Emanuel de Bragança |
||6 Jun 1714
||24 Feb 1777
||29 Aug 2000 |
- Koning van Portugal
After his father's death he busied himself with hunting and playing cards, while Portugal was governed by Sebastiao José de Carvalho e Melo (1699-1782), who received the title of marquis of Pombal in 1770.
Despite his enlightened reform, Pombal's reign was a reign of terror, arousing social discontent.
An earthquake, followed by a tidal wave, hit Lisbon in 1755 and 30.000 persons were killed. Although the royal family was in Belém at the time of the earthquake, for a long time Joseph I refused to enter any of his surviving palaces, preferring to live in a tent. One evening in September 1758 Joseph returned to Belém and his coachmen, finding a gate jammed, took a side road. Suddenly, three mounted men appeared under the darkness of an arch and fired several shots at the royal carriage. The king was hit in the arm and ordered the coachman to drive straight to his surgeon at Junqueira. He thus avoided a second ambush. Joseph was treated for bullet-wounds in his arm, shoulder and chest. Rumours circulated that he had been ambushed by the Távora family. The marquis of Távora was an enemy of Pombal and his daughter-in-law was one of Joseph's mistresses. Nothing more was heard of the affair until December, when the Távoras, the duke of Aveiro, a few other nobles and a number of Jesuits were arrested. Confessions were produced under torture and later retracted, but the marquis and his second son withstood the torture and revealed nothing. On a public scaffold the elder marchioness of Távora and her two sons were beheaded. The old marquis and the duke of Aveiro had their bones broken and the whole scaffold was set alight. Thus Pombal removed all resistance to his rule, while the king remained passive and idle. In 1775 a statue of Joseph mounted on a horse was inaugurated on a great square in rebuild Lisbon. The next year Joseph suffered from a stroke that deprived him of speech and his wife assumed the regency.
Before his death he married Maria's eldest son, 16-year-old Joseph, to Maria's younger sister, 30-year-old Benedita .Mercifully this incestuous marriage was barren.