Queen Jane Grey

Queen Jane Grey

Female 1537 - 1554  (~ 16 years)    Has more than 100 ancestors but no descendants in this family tree.

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  • Name Jane Grey 
    Prefix Queen 
    Relationshipwith Francis Fox
    Born Oct 1537  Grey family hunting lodge, Bradgate Park, Leicestershire Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Female 
    Died 12 Feb 1554 
    Buried Tower of, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I5946  Geneagraphie
    Last Modified 4 May 2001 

    Father Marquis Henry Grey,   b. 17 Jan 1517,   d. 23 Feb 1554  (Age 37 years) 
    Mother Frances Brandon,   b. 16 Jul 1517, Hatfield Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Nov 1559  (Age 42 years) 
    Married 1536  Church of St. Saviour, Southwark Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Siblings 2 siblings 
    Family ID F2617  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Guilford Dudley,   b. Abt 1534,   d. 12 Feb 1554  (Age ~ 20 years) 
    Married 21 May 1553 
    Last Modified 29 Aug 2000 
    Family ID F2618  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    Jane Grey
    Jane Grey
    From the cover of Children of Henry VIII, no credit information given

  • Notes 
    • 1553 Insurrection against Mary I is led by Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk whose daughter, Jane is married to Lord Guildford Dudley as part of a plot to alter the succession
      Jul 10, 1553 Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England.
      Jul. 19, 1553 Forces loyal to Mary I disperse Suffolk's troops and Jane Grey is imprisoned in the Tower of London. Mary proclaimed Queen

      The true tragedy of Jane Grey is that her death was through no fault of her own, but of the unfortunate fact of her heritage and of her religion. She most likely never really wanted to be Queen, but it was not something that was under her control. Her ambitious parents, along with her father-in-law John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, supported by the Protestants who were trying to avoid a Catholic succession and sought to keep a Protestant monarch on the throne if Edward were to die and to have that monarch under their thumbs. The best way to do that was to make their own children King and Queen. Mon 10th July, four days after Edward's death on July 6, 1553, Jane (age 15 yrs) was proclaimed Queen of England. However, Mary, who was the rightful heir to the throne according to Henry VIII's will, was gathering support in Suffolk. She and her followers rode into London nine days later (Wed 19th July) and imprisoned Jane and her supporters. Mary was the next Queen of England and Jane was beheaded the following year.

      Jane's schooling probably began when she was three years old. It was customary for the children of the nobility to begin their education from an early age. Because of this it has been estimated that Jane, at fifteen was probably equivilent to a young woman in her early twenties, in terms of her maturity and general knowledge. Jane was encouraged to excel in her studies more than her sisters, Katherine and Mary. Her correspondence indicates that she was a gifted scholar who earned the praise of Catholic and Protestant alike.
      Excerpt from 'The Schoolmaster' by Roger Ascham (published 1570)
      'Before I went into Germanie, I came to Brodegate in Lecestershire, to take my leave of that noble Ladie Jane Grey, to whom I am exceding moch beholdinge. Her parentes, the Duke and Duches with all the household, Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the Parke. I founde her, in her Chamber, reading Phaedon Platonis in Greeke, and that with as much delite, as some jentleman would read a merie tale in Boccaccio.
      'After salutation, and dewtie done, with some other taulke, I asked her whic she wold lose such pastime in the Parke? Smiling, she answered me: I wisse all their sport in the Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure that I find in Plato. Alas! Good folke, they never felt what trewe pleasurement.
      'And howe came you, madame, quoth I, to this deepe knowledge of pleasure, and what did chieflie allure you unto it; seinge not many women, but verie fewe men, have atteined thereunto?
      'I will tell you, quoth she, and tell you a troth whiche perchance ye will marvell at. One of the gretest benefits that ever God gave me is that he sent me so sharpe and severe Parentes, and so jentle a Scholemaster. For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether I spekee, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie, or sad, be sowying, plaiying, dauncing, or doing anything els: I must do it, as it were, in soch weight, measure, and number, even as perfectlie as God made the world; or els I am so sharplie taunted, so cruellie threatened, yea presentlie some tymes with pinches, nippes and bobbes, and other waies I will not name for the honour I beare them, so without measure misordered, that I thinke myself in hell, till tyme cum that I must go to Mister Elmer, who teacheth me so jentlie, so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurements to lerning, that I think all the tyme nothing, whiles I am with him. And when I am called from him, I fall on weeping, because what soever I do els, but learning, is full of grief, trouble, feare, and whole misliking.
      I remember that taulke gladly, bicause it is so worthy of memorie, and bicause also, it was the last taulke that ever I had, and the last tyme that ever I saw that noble and worthie ladie.'
      ( Roger Ascham was a tutor to Elizabeth as a young girl. He went on to serve Mary I as Latin Secretary. He was later Secretary to Elizabeth during her reign. )
      ( Mister Elmer was John Aylmer, and came to Bradgate as Jane's tutor in 1549 when she was 12 years old.)

      Early Life
      In 1546, at the age of nine, Jane was sent to Court, to live under the guardianship of Queen Catherine Parr, (left) the sixth wife of Henry VIII. It was common for the children of noble families to spend time away from the home, in order to learn the social skills that governed life at the Royal Court. When Catherine died of child bed fever in September 1548 at Sudeley Castle, Jane was chief mourner at her funeral. Catherine's second husband, Thomas Seymour, bought Jane's wardship in the same year, paying her father two thousand pounds. Seymour had promised that with his connections at court he would be well placed to suggest Jane as a suitable wife for the King. In a letter to Henry Grey, he expressed his hopes for Jane's future, 'If I may once get the King at liberty, I dare warrant you that His Majesty shall marry no other but Jane.' Seymour's plans were not to be. In 1549 he was arrested while breaking into the King's apartments in an attempt to have an audience with him. The Grey's were keen to distance themselves from Seymour after news of this scandal. Thomas Seymour was eventually executed for treasonable offences against the Lord Protector, his brother. It was John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland who was next to see the usefulness of Jane Grey in attaining power. In 1553 King Edward VI was a sickly boy of fifteen. He had been plagued by illness throughout his life and was now suffering from advanced tuberculosis. It became clear to those who were close to the King that he would not reach adulthood. Henry VIII's Will named his daughter Mary as next in line to the throne. If Edward did not marry and produce an heir, a Catholic would rule England. As Edward's chief Minister, Northumberland knew that he would be punished by Mary for his harsh anti-Catholic policies. Jane Grey was fourth in line to the throne, and represented, for Northumberland, his only real chance to retain the power and status he had attained. He focused on fostering a close association with Henry and Frances Grey. By May he had convinced them to formalise their alliance through marriage.
      Early in May 1553, Jane was summoned to her parent's presence to be informed she was betrothed to Guildford Dudley, son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. She protested, saying that she was already promised to Edward, Lord Hertford. This was probably the case, however it is unlikely that any formal arrangements had been made for Jane to marry Hertford. Jane may have made mention of this because of a dislike for Dudley and his family, not because of an affection for Hertford. Her parents assured her that her life would go on as before. Her studies would not be interrupted and she was to continue living with them at Suffolk Place. On 25 May 1553 ( may have been 21 May* ) Jane was married to Guildford at Durham House on the Strand in London. In the same ceremony, Jane's sister, Lady Katherine, was married to Lord Herbert, son of the Earl of Pembroke, and Northumberland's daughter, Katherine, to Lord Hastings. Jane's younger sister, Lady Mary Grey, was betrothed to her cousin, Lord Arthur Grey. The marriages allied Northumberland to three of the most powerful families at Court.
      The wedding was planned so hastily, that the wedding apparel had to borrowed from the Royal Wardrobe. Jane wore a headdress, 'of green velvet, set with precious stones. She wore a gown of cloth of gold and mantle of silver tissue. Her hair hung down her back, combed and plaited in a curious fashion.' A feast followed the ceremony, after which the bridegrooms left to joust in the royal tiltyard at Whitehall.
      June 1553
      Ten days after the marriage, Northumberland divulged his plan to Jane's parents. In June, Jane was moved to Durham House where she and Guildford were to live as man and wife. Jane later wrote of the Duchess of Northumberland becoming 'enraged' against her when she protested at having to leave her family home. It was at this time that Jane was informed of Edward's illness and to hold herself in readiness for whatever he may wish for her. Jane wrote later that she thought the Duchess's words were little more than boasting, and bore little consequence.
      Edward VI was growing weaker each day, and Northumberland knew he must hurry to complete the final stage of his plan. Vulnerable and delerious, Edward was easily convinced that he must strike his Catholic sister Mary from the line of succession if he was to be true to his father's name and in his duty to God. Edward's councillors were reticent. Any change to the succession required the consent of Parliament. If Northumberland failed in his scheme and Mary acsended the throne, they would be punished for their disloyalty. Northumberland, a skilled politician, met their hesitation with abuse. He put his case, 'with a great rage and fury, trembling for anger,' threatening to ' fight any man,' who defied him. A few councillors were later to report that they feared for their lives if they did not obey him. Northumberland's plans culminated in the King's 'Device.' The document, signed by Edward's council, removed both Elizabeth and Mary from the line of succession, naming Frances Grey and her offspring as the heirs to his dominion. Frances Grey was summoned to the king's bedside where she formally asceded the throne to her daughter, Jane.
      * Jane's biographers are divided over the exact date of the wedding, and both dates have been mentioned

      On Thursday 6 July 1553 the fifteen year old king died, surrounded by his Privy Coucillors, who gathered at his bedside. Jane had spent the few weeks beforehand, ill, at Chelsea Manor House. So ignorant was she, of Northumberland's plans, that she suspected her mother-in-law of trying to poison her. News of Edward's death was supressed, until Sunday 9 July, when a barge brought Mary Sidney, Jane's sister-in-law, to Chelsea. Mary, 'with more gravity than usual,' informed Jane that there was news of the King and she must go with her to Syon House. Two hours later, Jane and Mary entered Syon House from the waterstairs. From here they went to the empty Great Hall. Gradually the room filled with people familiar to Jane, including members of the Privy Council. Jane later wrote that the company, 'began to make me complimantary speeches, bending the knee before me...all of which ceremony made me blush...My distress was still further increased when...my mother-in-law entered and paid me homage. Then came the Duke of Northumberland himself who, as President of the Council, declared to me the death of the King and ...that he had taken good care of his kingdom, praying to the good Lord to defend it...from the evil of his sisters.' Dudley then said Jane, 'was the heir nominated by his majesty and that my sisters, the Lady Katherine and the Lady Mary Grey were to succeed me...at which words, all the lords of the Council, knelt before me exclaiming that they rendered me that homage because it pertained to me being of the right line...They added that they...swore to shed their blood and lose their lives to maintain the same.' The company then fell to the floor, their hands clasped out in front. Jane went on, 'On hearing this I remained stunned and out of myself and I call on those present to bear witness who saw me fall to the ground weeping piteously and dolefully lamenting the death of the King, I swooned indeed and lay as dead.' Jane went on to say that she did not want the crown and , 'it pleaseth me not.' Northumberland said, ' Your Grace doth wrong to yourself and to to your house.' He recounted the terms of Edward's Will. Jane's parents joined in, demanding that she accept. Jane then rose from the floor saying, '...If to succeed to the throne was indeed indeed my duty and my right, that He would aid me to govern the realm to His glory.'
      On Monday 10 July 1553, crowds gathered along the Thames to watch barges move from Westminster to the Tower of London where canons announced the arrival of the new Queen. Jane was given chopines, 3ft wooden clogs, which were strapped to her shoes to allow the crowds to catch a glimpse of her. At the Water Tower gate she was presented with the keys to the Tower. The entourage then made their way to the White Tower.
      Following this, a proclaimation was made, 'Jane, by the grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and of the Church of England and Ireland, under Christ on Earth, the Supreme Head.'
      On this day, a letter was sent to Mary from the Council, announcing that she had been declared illegitimate. Robert Dudley was sent to take her into custody, but Mary had been forewarned by a supporter and fled to Framlingham Castle in Norfolk, thus evading capture.
      On 11 July, William Paulet, the Lord High Treasurer, brought the crown to Jane to 'see how it fitted.' To his surprise, Jane refused, saying that she had not asked to see the jewels. Paulet told her, 'you must take it boldly, and soon I will have another made to crown your husband with.'
      It may have been at this point that Jane realised the extent of Northumberland's plan. Northumberland had not wanted her as Queen. He had wanted her as his son's wife. Guildford as King of England, would give Northumerland supreme power.
      Jane would not be bullied. Calling some of her Councillors to her, she announced that she would not grant Guildford the kingship, but instead, grant him the Dukedom of Clarence. Guildford and his mother were furious. They berated Jane for her stubborness. Later, Jane would write, 'I was not only deluded by the Duke and the Council, but maltreated by my husband and his mother.'
      Mary is proclaimed Queen
      When it was decided by the Council that Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk should set forth with his men to capture Mary, it was Jane who insisted he stay with her, to 'tarry at home in her company.' Northumberland was chosen to go in Suffolks place. His agreement, to leave the Council without his supervision, was a massive tactical error on Northumberland's part. In his absence, the councillors questioned his authority. By Tuesday 18 July, the full Council had left the Tower for a secret meeting at Baynard's castle. There they proclaimed Northumberland a traitor, and Mary, Queen. On Wednesday 19 July, Jane's father received word from Baynard's Castle demanding that he order his daughter to relinquish her title. He rode to the Castle where he signed Mary's proclaimation. He then returned to Jane's apartments where he found her waiting in her chair of state. He said to her, 'Come down off there my child. That is no place for you.' He then proceeded to tear down the canopy, telling Jane to remove her royal robes. Jane replied, 'I much more willingly take them off than I put them on. Out of obedience to you and my mother, I grevously sinned. Now I willingly relinquish the crown...May I not go home?' Her father did not answer her. On Thursday 20 July, while awaiting the arrival of supplies at Cambridge, Northumberland was arrested. On the same day, the Duke and Duchess of Suffolk left the Tower of London for Sheen, leaving their daughter behind. Jane was taken into custody by the Gentleman Gaoler, and moved her belongings from the Royal apartments to her new lodging at No. 5 Tower Green. Guildford was imprisoned next door in the Beauchamp Tower, and forbidden contact with Jane. On 24 July Dudley was brought back to the Tower, this time as a prisoner. In the hope of securing a pardon from the Queen he recanted his Protestant beliefs, saying that he had been seduced 'by the false and erroneous teachings' of the new religion. He requested and was granted by Mary, the right to attend Mass. Jane watched from her window as he was escorted to the Chapel Royal. Disgusted, but not surprised by Northumberland's lack of honour, she was heard to say, 'I pray God I, nor no friend of mine die so.' Dudley was granted a three day stay of execution for his efforts, but could not escape death. He was beheaded on 23 August 1553. Shortly before his death Dudley had written to the Earl of Arundel, ' Alas, my good lord, is my crime so heinous as no redemption but my blood can wash away the spots thereof? An old proverb there is, and that most true, that a living dog is better than a dead lion...I might but live and kiss her [Mary's] feet and spend both life and all in her honourable services, as I have the best part already, under her worthy brother and most glorious father.' Mary entered the Tower on 3 August. The next day, Jane wrote a letter to her cousin. It was intended, she said, ' for the witness of my innocence and the disburdening of my conscience.' On 29 August the author of Queen Jane and Queen Mary dined with Partridge, the Gentleman-Gaoler, at No. 5 Tower Green. Later, the evening would be described in great detail in the only contemporary chronicle of Jane's short reign. There is significant evidence to suggest that the narrator was a Rowland Lea, as the name is scrawled in the margin of the manuscript. The author writes of his surprise at finding Jane at the dining table. In high spirits, Jane assured him he was ' heartily welcome' and told Partridge and his guest to put on their caps, despite the fact that they were dining with royalty. Jane opened the conversation saying, 'The Queen's Majesty is a merciful princess; I beseech God she may long continue, and send His bountiful grace upon her.' 'After that,' says the narrator, 'we fell in discourse of matters of religion; and she asked what he was that preached at Paul's on Sunday before.' Jane asked, 'I pray you - have they Mass in London?' 'Yea, forsooth,' the narrator replied, 'in some places.' Jane continued, 'It may be so. It is not so strange as the sudden conversion of the late Duke - for who would have thought he would have so done?' Partridge's guest answered, 'Perchance he thereby hoped to have had his pardon.' 'Pardon!' exclaimed Jane, 'Woe worth him! He hath brought me and our stock in most miserable calamity and misery by his exceeding ambition. But for answering that he hoped for life by his turning, though other men be of that opinion, I utterly am not - for what man is there living, I pray you, although he had been innocent, that would hope of life in that case, being in the field against the Queen in person as General, and after his being so hatred and evil spoken of by the commons? And at his coming into prison so wondered at as the like was never heard by any man's time? Who was the judge that he should hope for pardon, whose life was odious to all men? But what will ye more? Like as his life was wicked and full of of dissimulation, so was his end thereafter.'
      'Should I, who am so young, and in my few years, forsake my faith for the love of life? Nay, God forbid! Much more he should not, whose fatal course, although he had lived his just number of years, could not have long continued.' 'But life was sweet, it appeared; so he might have lived, you will say, he did not care how. Indeed the reason is good for he that would have lived in chains to have had his life, belike would leave no other mean attempted. But God be merciful to us! For he sayeth, Whoso denyeth Me before men, I will not know him in My Father's kingdom.'
      The narrator continues, 'With this and much like talk the dinner passed away.' When he thanked Lady Jane she replied, 'I thank you. You are welcome, ' and then turned to Partridge, thanking him for, 'bringing this gentleman to dinner.'
      'Madam, ' answered Partridge, 'we were somewhat bold, not knowing that your ladyship dined below until we found your ladyship there.' Jane then retired and Partridges guest hurried back to his lodging within the Tower to transcribe the conversations of the evening.
      Jane and Guildford were tried at Guildhall on 13 November. Both were found guilty and sentenced to death. Even at this stage, Jane did not expect to die. Indeed, Mary probably had no intention of carrying out the sentence. It is thought that the civil disturbance known as the Wyatt Rebellion, changed her mind.
      Sir Thomas Wyatt raised a small band of protesters in Kent, angered at Mary's choice of husband in Philip of Spain. A Spanish King on the English throne was unthinkable. Wyatt entered the City on 7 February 1554, however he failed to acquire the support of Londoners, and was arrested by soldiers loyal to the Queen. Henry Grey's part in the rebellion made Jane's execution inevitable. Grey had returned to Bradgate where he had set about raising resistance in the Midlands. He was captured before he could do so.
      The success of Mary's alliance with Spain depended upon the stability of her kingdom. She was left with little choice other than to remove every trace of unrest. On 7 February Mary signed the death warrants of, 'Guildford Dudley and his wife...' The execution was set to take place two days later.
      Dr Feckenham
      On 8 February 1554, Jane was told to prepare for death the following morning. It was on this day that Dr Feckenham, Mary's chaplain, visited her to offer religious counsel and the opportunity to convert to Catholicism before her death. Jane told him, 'I am ready to face death patiently and in whatsoever manner it may please the Queen to appoint.' She went on to say that she, had no time for the 'controversy,' between the two religions. All that she sought, was the peace to ready herself for death. Feckenham took her reference to lack of time literally. He believed that Jane may have felt the need to recant her beliefs but did not have enough time to do so. He informed Mary, who granted Jane and Guildford a reprieve of three days for their 'spiritual enlightenment.' When Feckenham informed Jane, she was dismayed. 'Alas, sir! I did not intend what I said to be reported to the Queen, nor would I have you think me covetous of a moments longer life. I am only solicitous for a better life in Eternity and will gladly suffer death since it is Her Majesty's pleasure...Let me make my peace with God.' Feckenham was later to report that he was struck by Jane's gentleness and honour. He asked that she may allow him to accompany her to the scaffold, to which she consented.
      It was decided that Guildford would be executed on Tower Hill and Jane within the confines of the Tower. On 11 February Guildford requested the right to meet with Jane. Mary consented, adding that she hoped it would be of some consolation to them both. When word was sent to Jane, she refused, replying that, 'it would disturb the holy tranquility with which they had prepared themselves for death.' Jane added that her presence would, 'weaken rather than strengthen him,' that he should, 'take courage from [his] reason, and derive constancy from [his] heart.' If his soul was not at peace she would not settle it with her eyes, nor confirm it with her words. They must postpone their meeting until they 'met in a better world, where friendships were happy, and unions indissoluble, and theirs,' she hoped, 'would be eternal.' Around 10 o'clock on the morning of 12 February, Jane watched from her window as her husband was led from the Beauchamp Tower on his way to Tower Hill. She was still at the window when his body was brought back into the Tower, his head wrapped in bandage at his side. Those in her company reported later that she wept openly at the sight, and was heard to utter his name and something about the 'bitterness of death.'
      Jane had spent the morning in prayer and writing letters of farewell. Shortly before 11 o'clock she was collected by the Lieutenant of the Tower, Sir John Brydges. Jane then made her way to the scaffold, clutching Brydges arm. Yeoman of the Guard surrounded the wooden structure that had been erected the day before. At the scaffold, Jane was met by Dr Feckenham, along with several other Tower chaplains. An observer recorded what took place. Jane then spoke to Feckenham; 'God grant you all your desires and accept my own hearty thanks for all your attention to me. Although indeed, those attentions have tried me more than death can now terrify me.' She then climbed the stairs, 'nothing at all abashed...neither her eyes moistened with tears, although her two gentlewomen...wonderfully wept.' Jane then addressed the crowd and recited the fifty-first psalm in English. Dr Feckenham followed in Latin, after which she told him, ' God I beseech Him abundantly reward you for your kindness to me.' Jane then gave her gloves and handkerchief to her lady-in-waiting, Mrs Ellen, and handed her prayer book to Sir John Brydges. When she began to untie her gown herself the executioner stepped forward to help, but she brushed him aside. Mrs Ellen helped her to remove her headdress and neckerchief, and dispense with her heavy outer garment. The executioner then knelt and asked for Jane's forgiveness, which she gave 'most willingly.' There followed a five minute silence, whereby officials await a last-minute reprieve from the Monarch. The executioner then told Jane where to stand. She replied, 'I pray you despatch me quickly.' She began to kneel, then hesitated and said, 'Will you take it off before I lay me down?' The executioner answered, 'No madame.' Jane then tied the handkerchief around her eyes. Unable to locate the block, she became anxious, 'Where is it? What shall I do? Where is it?' she asked, her voice faltering. Those who stood upon the scaffold seemed unsure of what to do. 'One of the standers by' climbed the scaffold and helped her to the block. Her last words were, 'Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit.' According to tradition, her head was then held aloft with the words, 'So perish all the Queen's enemies. Behold, the head of a traitor.'
      And the sun, for sadness, would not show its head (Shakespeare)

      Jane wrote the following letter to Sir John Brydges in her prayer book:
      'Forasmuch as you have desired so simple a woman to write in so worthy a book, good Master Lieutenant, therefore I shall as a friend desire you, and as a Christain require you, to call upon God to incline your heart to His laws, to quicken you in His ways, and not to take the word of truth utterly out of your mouth. Live still to die, that by death you may purchase eternal life: and remember how the end of Methusael [sic] who shall read in Scripture was the longest liver that was of man, died at last: for, as the preacher says, that there a time to be born and a time to die; and the day of death is better than the day of our birth.
      Yours, as the Lord knoweth as a friend, Jane Duddeley.

      Lady Jane Grey's address from the scaffold
      Good people, I have come hither to die and by a law I am condemned to the same. The fact, indeed, against the Queen's Highness was unlawful and the consenting thereto by me. But touching the procurement and desire thereof by me or on my behalf I do wash my hands in innocence. Before God and the face of you, good Christian people, this day I pray you all, to bear me witness that I die a true Christian woman, and that I look to be saved by none other means, but only by the mercy of God, in the merits of the blood of his only son, Jesus Christ. And I confess, when I did know the word of God, I neglected the same, loved myself and the world, and thereto the plague or punishment is happily and worthily happened unto me for my sins. And yet, I thank God of His goodness that he hath thus given me a time and respite to repent. And now good people, while I am alive, I pray you to assist me with your prayers.'


      John Aylmer
      Jane's father, Henry Grey, paid for Aylmer's Cambridge education. In return he spent time at Bradgate tutoring Grey's daughter during 1549 and 1550. In 1553, when Mary I became Queen, Aylmer fled to the Continent where he made contact with the European Protestant reformers. When Elizabeth ascended the throne, he returned to England where he became the Archdeacon of Lincoln. In 1566 Aylmer was consecrated Bishop of London. He died in 1594 and was buried in Old St. Paul's. Aylmer wrote "A Harbour for Faithful Subjects" in which he gives the following account of Jane's piety; 'The King left her [Princess Elizabeth] rich cloths and jewels; and I know it to be true, that in seven years after her father's death, she never in all that time looked upon that rich attire and precious jewels but once and that against her will. And that there never came gold or stone upon her head, till her sisiter forced her to force off her former soberness, and bear her company in her glittering gayness. And then she so wore it, as every man might see that her body carried that which her heart misliked. I am sure that her maidenly apparel which she used in King Edward's time, made the noblemen's daughters and wives to be ashamed to be dressed and painted like peacocks; being more moved with her virtuous example than with all that ever Paul or Peter wrote touching that matter. Yea, this I know, that a great man's daughter [Lady Jane Grey] receiving from Lady Mary before she was queen, good apparel of tinsel, cloth of gold and velvet, laid on with parchment lace of gold, when she saw it, said; 'What shall I do with it?' 'Marry,' said a gentlewoman,' wear it.'
      'Nay,' quoth she, 'that were a shame, to follow my Lady Mary against God's word, and leave my lady Elizabeth which followeth God's word.' And when all the ladies, at the coming of the Scots queen-dowager [Mary of Guise] went with their hair frowsed, curled and double curled, she altered nothing, but kept her own maidenly shamefacedness.')

      Jane's arrival at the Tower was later recorded by a spectator, Baptisa Spinola, who wrote...
      ' Today I saw Donna Jana Graia walking in a grand procession to the Tower. She is now called Queen, but is not popular, for the hearts of the people are with Mary, the Spanish Queen's daughter. This Jane is very short and thin, but prettily shaped and graceful. She has small features and a well shaped nose, the mouth flexible and the lips red. The eyebrows are arched and and darker than her hair which is nearly red. The eyes are sparkling and reddish brown in colour. I stood so near her grace that I noticed her colour was good but freckled. When she smiled she showed her teeth, which are white and sharp. In all, a gracious and animated figure. She wore a dress of green velvet, stamped with gold, with large sleeves. Her headdress was a white coif with many jewels. She walked under a canopy, her mother carrying her long train, and her husband, Guilfo, walking by her, dressed all in white and gold, a very tall strong boy with light hair, who paid her much attention. The new Queen was mounted on very high chopines to make her look taller, which were concealed by her robes, as she is very small and short. Many ladies followed, with noblemen, but this lady is very heretical and has never heard Mass, and some people did not come into the procession for that reason.'

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