Tsaar Nikolai II  von Holstein-Gottorp

Tsaar Nikolai II von Holstein-Gottorp

Male 1868 - 1918  (50 years)    Has more than 100 ancestors and 5 descendants in this family tree.

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  • Name Nikolai II von Holstein-Gottorp 
    Prefix Tsaar 
    Relationshipwith Adam
    Born 18 May 1868  St Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 17 Jul 1918  Ekaterinburg Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I5535  Geneagraphie
    Last Modified 6 Dec 2001 

    Father Tsaar Alexander III von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 10 Mar 1845, St Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Nov 1894, Livadia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years) 
    Mother Prinzessin Maria Feodorovna af Danmark,   b. 26 Nov 1847, Yellow Palace, Kobenhaven Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 13 Oct 1928, Villa Hvidore, nr Kobenhaven Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 80 years) 
    Married 9 Nov 1866  St. Petersburg Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Siblings 5 siblings 
    Family ID F2372  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Maria Mathilde Feliksowna Kschessinska,   b. 16 Aug 1872, Ligovo b.Peterhof Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Dec 1971, Paris, Île-de-France, Fr Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 99 years) 
    Last Modified 20 Oct 2002 
    Family ID F22682  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Alexandra Fjeodorovna von Hessen-Darmstadt,   b. 6 Jun 1872, Darmstadt Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Jul 1918, Ekaterinburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 46 years) 
    Married 1893 
    • The Date is July 17, 1918 in Yekaterinburg, Russia, you are about to wittness history. A man with a black beard and black hair is being follwed by 11 men, women, and children. A short strong man carefully carries a young thin 13 year old boy. A taller woman follows him, she is followed by 4 young women. Behind them are 4 others a cook, a maid, a valet, and a doctor. The short strong man puts the young boy in a chair next to the taller woman who is his mother ,the short man stands next to his son. The four young women are standing behind their brother, mother, and father. Next to them are the cook, maid, valet, and doctor. They are huddled together in a small room barely 13X7 feet big. The man with the dark beard comes into the room with his right hand in his pocket and a piece of paper in his left. He directs the 11 people to stand in 2 rows. He reads the paper which says, "Because your family persists in their attack on Soviet Russia, The Ural Executive Commitee has decided to
      excecute you." The short man turns to his family and turns back to the dark gentleman and says, "Wha.. What?" The dark gentleman repeats the order again and 12 armed men begin shooting. What you have just witnessed is the excecution of Tsar Nicholas II and his family. The short man is Nicholas II, his son is Alexei, his wife Alexandra, his daughters Olga, Tatiana, Marie, and Anastasia. The cook is Kharitinov, the maid Anna Demidova the valet Trupp, and the doctor is Eugene Botkin. The dark gentleman is Yakov Yurovsky. I've always been taught and believed in 2 wrongs don't make a right, but in this case maybe it could have been. If you gave me a big old O.J. knife and Yurovsky in a locked room, only 1 person would come out...me. Here I want to put a quote from the book Tsar, The Lost World Of Nicholas And Alexandra "The Russian Revolution, cites the murder of the Romanovs in July 1918 as the moment when history made a turn toward genocide, when "millions of nameless beings" were placed on a list of expandables and the world entered "an entirely new moral realm". That realm is with us still. In a world grown accustomed, even inured, to the slaughter of innocents, these seven faces and this fatefull room might serve as epigraphs for all the horrors the twentieth century would hold in store." The Romanovs were victims of the times in which they lived. The nineteenth century saw the rise of the "modern age" and the aristocrasies of that time, in many cases, failed to "move with the times," sadly the Romanovs among them. However, as a family and as human beings they were beyond reproach. I believe Nicholas was the victim of some bad advisors and the all out European plunge into the first war, one Russia should have withdrawn from, but for "family" reasons, could not. Some called Nicholas. unfit for the job; what he was unfit for was the times -- I think he was a purer soul than could have survived the machinations of government at that level -- many forces, within his own family and class, were actively (and openly) at work against him! Nicholas & Aleksandra chose not to involve themselves in "corrupt high society" and so were treated badly and schemed against. If things had gone differently, Nicholas would have made a perfect ruler in a constitutional monarchy. When the nations of Europe fell in that slaughter (W.W.I), so too did the Romanovs -- victims not just of the Bolsheviki, but also of their "larger family." They were, truly, martyrs in an upheaval that brought about the "end" of a whole way of life. Cruelest of all, their own people knew little or nothing of the facts surrounding their demise; crueler yet, the Russians had an insufferable and ungodly government foisted upon them -- one that a significant segment of the population did not choose.

      After exactly 80 years the last imperial family was laid to rest in the ancient St Peter and Paul's Cathedral. The funeral wasn't easy, the patriarch Alexi II was not convinced that it were the bones of the imperial family, even then the DNA matched. And to avoid a conflict the remains of the tsar, his family and their faithful servants, where called anonymous victims of the Russian revolution. The president Boris Yeltsin- which was the Communist party chief in Ekatrinebourg in 1977, destroyed the Ipatjevhouse, there the Russian royal family was murdered, he condemned the murder but stuck to the official church description of the remains as unnamed political victims of the Russian revolution. In the early hours of July 17, 1918 the imperial family, with servants where led down into the cellar there they where shot on direct command from Lenin. The bodies where drowned in acids and shopped to paces an thrown in a deserted mine. After some time they whore brought up again and buried outside Ekatrinebourg, and it was very secret. After Soviet's end the bodies where found, and prince Philip of Britain, who is one of the closest relatives to the late empresses of Russia. To identify Nicholas body was harder, because almost ever close relative was murdered in 1918. But at last they found a relative who volunteered.
      In the last minute president Yeltsin change his mind and decided to go to the funeral even when the church wished he not to attend. "The truth (about the execution) was concealed for 80 years," Yeltsin said a week before when the bones were prepared for burial in a church in Ekatrinebourg, " I was told nothing. And tomorrow, the truth should be told, an I should take
      part." The funeral was held on July 17, 1998.
     1. Olga von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 3 Nov 1895,   d. 17 Jul 1918, Ekaterinburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 22 years)
     2. Tatiana von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 29 May 1897,   d. 17 Jul 1918, Ekaterinburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 21 years)
     3. Maria von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 14 Jun 1899,   d. 17 Jul 1918, Ekaterinburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 19 years)
     4. Anastasia von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 5 Jun 1901,   d. 17 Jul 1918, Ekaterinburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 17 years)
     5. Aleksej von Holstein-Gottorp,   b. 30 Jul 1904, Peterhof Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Jul 1918, Ekaterinburg Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 13 years)
    Last Modified 29 Aug 2000 
    Family ID F2373  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos

  • Notes 
    • Nicholas II was the last Tsar to reign over the Russia. The Alexander Palace was the site of his birth, where his mother delivered him in her plush Blue Bedroom. Ominously, this chanced to be the Orthodox feast day of St. Job the Sufferer, which seemed to foretell the endless trials that would plague Nicholas' tragic life. Little "Nicky", as he was called, was the product of a stunning, petite brunette, Maria Fyodorovna Romanova - formerly Dagmar, Princess of Denmark - and a giant, intimidating father, Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov. Alexander III was an impressive man, who dominated others by his size and powerful personally. Throughout the 19th century Romanov men had the reputation for being big and imposing. Unfortunately, Nicholas took after his mother. He was about 5'6" tall and his Romanov uncles all seemed to tower over him. He tried to compensate for his height by working out with weights and athletic equipment. No matter what he did to build up his size he still remained slight and wiry in physique. His legs were short, but this was less apparent when he was on horseback. Nicholas looked the most regal when mounted. Most people who meet the Tsar commented on his stunning Danish blue eyes, which some thought were the well to his soul. He always wore his brown hair parted on the left and grew a thick beard filled with golden highlights when he was a young man. It stayed with him throughout his life and became his signature feature, along with the nervous habit he had of brushing his moustache up with the back of his hand. From his father he inherited a pug nose, which he disliked as it reminded him of Paul I, who he considered the ugliest of his ancestors. Nicholas had an excellent education and was perhaps the best educated European monarch of his time. His parents where astute enough to see the challenges of facing a 20th Century Tsar would be quite different than those of the past and tried to prepare him for his future responsibilities. The very real threat of terrorism loomed over the Imperial Family constantly. Once a bomb blew apart their train car, and only Alexander's powerful shoulders kept the roof from crushing the entire family. A powerful cordon of secret police and military guards protected them, but this meant Nicholas grew up in the isolation of his family. This held him back and he was late in maturing. He never gained a sense of confidence and self reliance. The lack of friends from outside the clan of European royalty deprived Nicholas of the benefit of understanding the way his future subjects lived. In this he was no different than most of his royal peers. But Nicholas was also purposely cut off from liberal thought and ideas by his parents. Since he had almost no contact with Russia's growing intellectual and artistic community he developed narrow ideas of honor, service and tradition which would harm his ability to govern Russia in the future. While heir to the throne, as Tsarevich, Nicholas achieved the rank of Colonel in the Life Guards. He loved the military and always considered himself an army man. His character and social habits were strongly influenced by his years as a young officer and he made many of his longest lasting friendships among his brother officers. These where his happiest years, when he was almost free of care and worry about the future. His father was still relatively young and Nicholas could expect a few years to fill the role of a dashing, aristocratic officer before he was called to serve his country in an more serious role. The Tsarevich embraced the relative freedom of army life with gusto. He could drink and carry on like the most hedonistic of his fellow officers. Life was full of regimental dinners, concerts, dances and beautiful women. It was during this time he met a young dancer from the Imperial Ballet named Mathilde Kschessinka, who became his first, real girl friend. It wasn't a serious relationship. Both of them knew it couldn't go anywhere and besides, Nicholas had already given his heart to a young, sad eyed and withdrawn German princess named Alix of Hesse. Many thought it was not a good match. Alix wasn't thought to have the right personality traits and outgoing aggressiveness sought in a Russian Empress-to-be. Nicholas could not be persuaded to consider any other bride than Alix, and the couple where formally engaged in 1893. In fall, 1894, Nicholas' father developed a serious nephritis condition which became progressively worse. Alexander's doctors advised a trip to the gentle climate of the Crimea. The famous healer John of Kronstadt was summoned to the Tsar's bedside died in the arms of his wife at Lividia aged 47. Nicholas felt he was not ready to rule. He knew the weighty task of ruling Russia was greater than his experience and abilities. Yet he believed, even with all his inadequacies and self-doubt, that God had chosen his destiny. The new Emperor took his
      coronation oath very seriously and saw anointing as Tsar as spiritual experience. After the crown was placed on his head Nicholas would look for support and guidance first within himself and then to God, who had given him this burden. Quickly realising he was surrounded by deceit and the self-interest of bureaucrats and sycophants, Nicholas concluded that on earth he could trust few people. Bullied and misled by his relatives he increasingly turned to his wife for support. Nicholas became cynical and mistrustful of human nature. Loneliness and isolation would be his lot in life. Above all else, Nicholas loved Russia first and then his family. He thought the fate of the two was inseparable. No one knew the shortcomings of the Romanov Dynasty better than he and yet he felt the monarchy was the only force preventing Russia from coming apart at the seams. Nicholas was intelligent enough to realise the probably of his assassination was quite high. Alexandra's decision to marry him and share his uncertain future was a commitment he always appreciated. Nicholas was a deeply religious and generally solitary person, who loved the faithful companionship of his dogs to the company of state ministers. Hunting on his estates was a favorite pastime, where he could avoid the tumultuous politics of St. Petersburg and the pestering affairs of his ministers. Rather than living in the Winter Palace at the center of the city, Nicholas chose to live in the countryside nearby. The Alexander Palace became his primary home and Peterhof his seaside retreat. In his palace, the Tsar worked alone at his desk. Refusing to have a secretary, he conducted business on his own, assisted by his aide-d-camp, officials of the Court and his valets. Nicholas was a hard worker and diligent about state business, although his accomplishments where severely limited by his tendency to focus on detail rather than the big picture. He was uncertain of his own opinions on things and felt asking for advice to be a sign of weakness or hesitancy. Therefore he tried to follow his own 'instincts' which were limited by his experience and narrow upbringing. Nicholas loved music, particularly Wagner. Tristan and Isolde was his and Aleksandra's favorite piece of music. When he could find time, writing to friends or reading were favorite pastimes after spending time with his family. Nicholas was intensely private and abhorred being touched by strangers, though he wasn't standoffish. People fond him extremely affable and kindly in nature.
      Though lauded for his admirable personal qualities, as an absolute autocrat Nicholas has been deemed a failure. He found it impossible to reconcile his own strict views of what was right and wrong for Russia with the responsibility of a modern monarch to compromise his own views for the good of the nation. Not an unintelligent man, but hesitant to draw his own conclusions, Nicholas vacillated on important issues. L acking political savvy and instinct, he was seldom sure how to handle the affairs of state. This made him come across as weak and contradictory to his ministers. They found it difficult to read his true thoughts and found it hard to follow his leadership. Although it has been strongly argued by others, Nicholas' political decisions were not dominated by his wife, Aleksandra. He made up his own mind and the fact that they agreed on so many points only indicates the closeness of their political instincts concerning Russia. In the end, in the weeks before the revolution, Nicholas was completely broken by his responsibilities and family problems. His health was bad but he did his best to conceal his exhaustion and physical pain from others. Canonized by the Orthodox Church in 1981.
      National Anthem
      Bozhe tsarya khrani!
      Sil'nyy desrzhavnyy,
      Tsartstvuy na slavu, na slavu nam.
      Tsarstvuy na strkh vragam,
      Tsar' pravolslavnyy,
      Bozhe tsarya khrani!

      The English Transliteration
      God Save the Tsar!
      Powerful and Sovereign,
      Reign for Glory, for Glory to us.
      Reign for Terror to the Enemies,
      Orthodox Tsar,
      God save the Tsar!

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