1763 - 1844 (81 years)
Has 6 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||Carl Johan av Sverige orch Norge |
||26 Jan 1763
||Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Aquitaine, Fr
||8 Mar 1844
||Stockholm, Sodermanland, Sverige
||18 Sep 2010 |
||Kung Carl av Sverige, XIII, b. 7 Oct 1748, Stockholm, Sodermanland, Sverige , d. 5 Feb 1818, Royal Palace, Stockholm (Age 69 years) |
||Hedvig Elisabet Charlotta von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, b. 22 Mar 1759, Eutin , d. 20 Jun 1818, Stockholm, Sodermanland, Sverige (Age 59 years) |
||7 Jun 1774
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
- Brother in law of Joseph, brother of Napoleon
5.6.1806 Prince et Duc de Pontecorvo, 21.8.1810 Crownprince of Sweden, 5.2.1818 Kung
The son of a Pau tailor made an astonishing rise to power. At a young age, Bernadotte first enlisted in the royal armies and then in the revolutionary armies. General by 1794, he left the Army of the Rhine to lend his support to Bonaparte in Italy in 1797. He was asked to take the enemy flags to the Directory. After a brief mission as ambassador to Vienna, he became minister of War under the Directory, from July to September 1799.
Bernadotte would never be an unwavering Bonaparte supporter. He refused to take part in the 18-Brumaire coup d'état, and thus earned the reputation of being a radical Jacobin. As commander of the Army of the West, his name was linked to what was called the "butter pot" conspiracy (since the anti-Bonaparte leaflets circulated in these pots). Then he married Désirée Clary, Bonaparte's ex-fiancée, thus becoming brother-in-law to Joseph Bonaparte, married to Julie Clary since 1794.
Nonetheless, he was named marshal in 1804 and prince of Pontecorvo two years later, even though he played a minor role in major battles. During the two simultaneous battles at Auerstädt and Jena, he was apparently long in bringing up reinforcements. Napoleon did not hold this against him, probably because of the Emperor's past relationship with Désirée Clary.
While pursuing the remains of the Prussian army after the battle, Bernadotte made contacts with Swedes taken prisoner at Lübeck. This proved to be an important step, since on August 21, 1810, undoubtedly because of the relations he had formed with the prisoners, he was elected crown prince of Sweden by the Öretro States General. The Swedes hoped to have a ruler who would have Napoleon's approval. The Emperor did not support Bernadotte but did not oppose him either. The new prince himself "became" completely Swedish: he renounced Catholicism and took the affairs of the kingdom to heart.
Some wondered if he would become a traitor. In 1812, he drew closer to Russia and entered a coalition against France in 1813. His army beat Oudinot at Grossberen and Ney at Dennewitz. Though he may have coveted the French throne as it was said he did not obtain it; however the Treaty of Kiel on January 14, 1814 granted him the throne of Norway. On February 5, 1818, he took the name Charles XIV, King of Sweden and Norway. The dynasty he founded still reigns in Sweden.
Prince of Ponte Corvo 5 of June 1805. Elected heir to the Swedish throne 21 of August 1810, adopted by King Carl XIII, Swedish Crown Prince 5 of November 1810, Norwegian Crown Prince 4 of November 1814. King of Sweden and Norway upon the death of Carl XIII. Crowned in Stockholm 11 of May and in the Cathedral of Trondheim 7 of September.
Motto: The people's love my reward
As King Carl XIV Johan he was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty on the throne of the two countries. He never learnt to speak either Swedish or Norwegian, and was often in conflict with the Storting (parliament), not least in his repeated attempts to increase the power of the crown. More than anything else Carl Johan, as founder of the House of Bernadotte, wanted the union between Sweden and Norway to be a solid edifice, based on mutual trust and respect. He initiated the building of the Royal Palace in Oslo, and today the city's main street bears his name. With his queen, known as Desideria (Desirée Clary, Napoleon´s former fiancée, the daughter of a well-established merchant in Marseilles), he had one son, Oscar.