1769 - 1852 (83 years)
Has more than 100 ancestors and 10 descendants in this family tree.
||Arthur Garret Cowley Wellesley |
||Prime Minister |
|Relationship||with Francis Fox|
||24 Upr Merrion St, Dublin
||18 Jun 1815
||14 Sep 1852
||St. Paul's Cathedral.
||This person is also Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington at Wikipedia |
||17 Sep 2001 |
- 1st Duke of Wellington; grew up Dangan Castle, Co.Meath, defeated Napoleon at Waterloo 1815, Prime Minister 1828-30, passed Catholic emancipation 1829.
4.9.1809 Baron Douro of Wellesley und Viscount Wellington of Talavera und Wellington, 28.2.1812 Earl of Wellington, 30.6.1812 Duque de Ciudad Radrigo und Grande 1.Kl Spaniens, 3.10.1812 Marquess of Wellington, 1813 Duque daVictoria, Marquez de Torres Vedras und Conde doVimiera, 1815 niederl.Fürst v.Waterloo, ir.Baron of Mornington Marquess Douro, Earl of Mornington
He was educated in Chelsea and briefly at Eton.
He was then sent to the military academy in Angers, 1785-6, to prepare him for a career in the army.
When he was eighteen, Wellington received a commission in the Seventy Third Regiment of Foot, and thereafter he moved through the ranks fairly rapidly, becoming a colonel in 1796, and through his demonstrable military prowess, a major general in 1802, a lieutenant general in 1808, a general in 1811 and field marshal in 1813.
Wellington was aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland, the Earl of Westmorland and Earl Fitzwilliam, 1787-1793, and between 1790 and 1797 he sat in the Irish Parliament as Member for the family seat of Trim (WP1/1-6).
From 1797 to 1805, Wellington served in India, largely in Mysore and adjacent areas, taking a prominent role both in the campaign against Tipoo Sultan in 1799, at Seringapatam, and during the Anglo-Maratha war of 1803-5, winning notable victories at Assaye and Argaum, and bringing about the submission of Sindhia and of the Raja of Berar (WP1/7-163; WP3/1-3). After returning to England, Wellington commanded a brigade in the abortive expedition to recapture Hanover, December 1805 to February 1806. He became Member of Parliament for Rye in 1806, for Mitchell, 1807, and for Newport (Isle of Wight) 1807-9 (WP1/164-5).
During 1807-9, Wellington was Chief Secretary for Ireland and a lord of the Treasury. From July to September 1807, Wellington commanded a division in the expedition against the island of Zealand, and was given command in the Iberian Peninsula in June 1808. In August of that year he won victories at Rolica and Vimeiro, which resulted in the French evacuation of Portugal. After resigning his Irish posts, Wellington was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in Portugal and marshal general of the Portuguese army. Wellington was to remain in command for six years, during which time he gained notable victories, including Talavera, Busaco, Salamanca and Vittoria; and his services were again employed for the Waterloo campaign of 1815. In 1809 he was created Viscount Wellington, in February 1812 Earl of Wellington, in October 1812 Marquis of Wellington, and in 1814, Duke of Wellington. He was also to hold the command of the Spanish army for two years from 1812. From August 1814 to January 1815, Wellington was ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary at Paris, and from January to March 1815 was first plenipotentiary to the Congress of Vienna. Between 1815 and 1818 he was Commander-in-Chief of the allied armies of occupation in France and from August to November 1818 he was joint plenipotentiary to the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (WP1/166-612).
Wellesley was a soldier first and a politician second. Born in Ireland, son of an Irish peer, he sat in the Irish Parliament.
Knighted for army service in India, Wellington went on to distinguish himself, becoming a national hero, due to his exploits and victories in the Peninsula War throwing the French out of Spain and his defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at Quatre-Bras and Battle of Waterloo in 1815, as general of the allied armies. Following his victory at Waterloo, Wellington served as a member of the Congress of Vienna where he opposed dividing France and supported the restoration of the Bourbons.
Wellington became prime minister (1828-30). His government proved unpopular for its lack of resolve against parliamentary reform and being forced to concede to Roman Catholic emancipation.
After leaving office as prime minister, Wellington served as foriegn secretary in the government of William Lamb, and in the cabinet of Robert Peel. He was also sporadically commander-in-chief from 1827, holding that title from 1842 until his death in 1852.
1828 - Russia declares war on Turkey. Uruguay becomes independent republic. Liberals revolt in Mexico, Vicente Guerrero become president. Andrew Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams in U. S. presidential election. Charles Carroll, America's richest man begins construction of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. Working Men's party founded in New York. Noah Webster publishes the "American Dictionary of the English Language." In London, Samuel Jones patents a glass bead containing acid, as the "Promethean match." Weekly "The Spectator" appears.
1829 - Act of Parliament establishes a London police force. Thomas Attwood forms Birmingham Political Union to push for parliamentary reform. President Guerrero of Mexico is ousted by General Anastasio Bustamante. Turkey recognizes Greece, Peace of Adrianople ends Russo-Turk war. Edgar Allen Poe publishes "Tamerlane " and other poems. Tennyson publishes "Timbuctoo." Washington Irving hits with a bestseller, "The Conquest of Granada." The concertina is patented. Daguerre and Niepce form a partnership to "develop" their photographic inventions. The first Oxford-Cambridge boat race is contested at Henley. Centralized London Metro Police Force is instituted. In America, James Smithson, a British chemist, leaves £100,000 to found the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D. C. The Delaware and Hudson gravity railroad opens. Typewriter is patented granted first patent.
Arthur Wellesley, the son of the Earl of Mornington, was born in Dublin in 1769. After being educated at Eton and a military school at Angers he received a commission in the 73rd Infantry. Eventually Wellesley obtained the rank of captain and became aide-de-camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.
In 1797 Wellesley was sent to India. With Napoleon gaining victories in Egypt, Wellesley was dispatched to deal with Tippoo Sahib of Mysore. As brigade commander under General George Harris he impressed his superiors throughout the Seringapatam expedition and Wellesley was made administrator of the conquered territory.
Wellesley returned to England in 1805 and the following year he was elected as the MP for Rye in Sussex. A year after entering the House of Commons, the Duke of Portland appointed Wellesley as his Irish Secretary. Although a member of the government, Arthur Wellesley remained in the army and in 1808 he was sent to aid the Portuguese against the French. After a victory at Vimeiro he returned to England but the following year he was asked to assume command of the British Army in the Peninsular War. In 1812 the French were forced out of Spain and Wellesley reinforced his victory against the French at Toulouse.
In 1814 Wellesley was granted the title, the Duke of Wellington. He was then put in command of the forces which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in June, 1815. Parliament rewarded this military victory by granting Wellington the Hampshire estate of Strathfieldsaye.
In 1818 the Duke of Wellington returned to politics when he accepted the invitation of Lord Liverpool to join his Tory administration as master-General of the Ordnance. In 1829 Wellington assisted Robert Peel in his efforts to reorganize the Metropolitan Police.
In 1828 the Wellington replaced Lord Goderich as became prime minister. Although Wellington and the Home Secretary, Robert Peel, had always opposed Catholic Emancipation they began to reconsider their views after they received information on the possibility of an Irish rebellion. As Peel said to Wellington: "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger". King George IV was violently opposed to Catholic Emancipation but after Wellington threatened to resign, the king reluctantly agreed to a change in the law.
Robert Peel, Duke of Wellington and the Pope (1829)
In 1830 unemployment in rural areas began to grow and the invention of the threshing machine posed another threat to the economic prosperity of the farm labourer. The summer and autumn of 1830 saw a wave of riots, rick-burnings and machine-breaking. In a debate in the House of Lords in November, Earl Grey, the Whig leader, suggested that the best way to reduce this violence was to introduce parliamentary reform. The Duke of Wellington replied that the existing constitution was so perfect that he could not imagine any possible alternative that would be an improvement on the present system. In the speech Wellington made it clear that he had no intention of introducing parliamentary reform. When news of what Wellington had said in Parliament, his home in London was attacked by a mob. Now extremely unpopular with the public, Wellington began to consider resigning from office. On 15th November, 1830 Wellington's government was defeated in a vote in the House of Commons. The new king, William IV, was more sympathetic to reform than his predecessor and two days later decided to ask Earl Grey to form a government. As soon as Grey became prime minister he formed a cabinet committee to produce a plan for parliamentary reform. Details of the proposals were announced on 3rd February 1831. The bill was passed by the House of Commons by a majority of 136, but despite a powerful speech by Earl Grey, the bill was defeated in the House of Lords by forty-one.
Wellington attended the opening of the Liverpool to Manchester Railway but was deeply upset by the way he was booed and hissed by the crowds as his train entered Manchester. This was a reaction to his views on the Peterloo Massacre and his opposition to the 1832 Reform Act. This experience made him hostile to the railways and warned that cheap travel may result in revolution. However, Wellington later changed his mind about the railways after developed a close relationship with George Hudson. Hudson helped Wellington make a great deal of money by advising him when to buy and sell railway shares.
Wellington retired from public life in 1846 but in 1848 he organised a military force to protect London against possible Chartist violence at the large meeting at Kennington Common. The Duke of Wellington died in 1852 and is buried in St Paul's Cathedral.
(1) Harriet Arbuthnot, the wife of Charles Arbuthnot, the Tory M.P., was a close friend of the Duke of Wellington. Harriet Arbuthnot kept a diary during 1830.
4th November, 1830: Parliament was opened by the King on the 2nd. He was very well received by the people who, however, were very disorderly, hooted and hissed the Duke wherever they could see him. People complain that the Duke did harm by declaring publicly he would not lend himself to any reform and that he thought, in its results, no form of representation could be better than ours. I don't believe there will be any disturbance. The wretched state to which Belgium is reduced by their desire for reform is a pretty good lesson for sober and reflecting people such as we are.
7th November, 1830: We hear the radicals are determined to make a riot. The King gets quantities of letters every day telling him he will be murdered. The King is very much frightened and the Queen cries half the day with fright.
The Duke is greatly affected by all this state of affairs. He feels that beginning reform is beginning revolution, and therefore he must endeavour to stem the tide as long as possible, and that all he has to do is to see when and how it will be best for the country that he should resign. He thinks he cannot till he is beat in the House of Commons. He talked about this with me yesterday.
(2) John Cab Hobhouse, a Whig politician, kept a journal in 1830.
The Duke of Wellington made a speech in the Lords, and declared against Reform. I hear he was hissed, and hurt by a stone. I heard this evening (November 4th) that a very unpleasant feeling was rising among the working classes, and that the shopkeepers in the Metropolis were so much alarmed that they talked of arming themselves.
(3) Charles Greville, Clerk of the Privy Council, kept a journal in 1830.
8th November, 1830: The Duke of Wellington made a violent and uncalled for declaration against Reform, which has without doubt sealed his fate. Never was there an act of more egregious folly, or one so universally condemned by friends and foes.
(4) Letters from the Duke of Wellington to Mrs Arbuthnot (April/May, 1831)
(28th April) I learn from John that the mob attacked my House and broke about thirty windows. He fired two blunderbusses in the air from the top of the house, and they went off.
(29th April) I think that my servant John saved my house, or the lives of many of the mob - possibly both - by firing as he did. They certainly intended to destroy the house, and did not care one pin for the poor Duchess being dead in the house.
(1st May) Matters appear to be going as badly as possible. It may be relied upon that we shall have a revolution. I have never doubted the inclination and disposition of the lower orders of the people. I told you years ago that they are rotten to the core. They are not bloodthirsty, but they are desirous of plunder. They will plunder, annihilate all property in the country. The majority of them will starve; and we shall witness scenes such as have never yet occurred in any part of the world.
(5) James Grant, Random Recollections of the House of Lords (1836)
One of the greatest defects in the character of the Duke as a statesman is, his neither anticipating public opinion, nor keeping abreast with it. He generally resists it until it has acquired an overwhelming power. Had he, when in office, only granted a moderate measure of uniform, the nation would have been satisfied at least for a time, and he might still have been Prime Minister of the country.
The Duke of Wellington is not a good speaker. His style is rough and disjointed. His manner of speaking is much worse than his diction. He has a bad screeching sort of voice, aggravated by an awkward mode of mouthing the words. His enunciation is so bad, owing in some measure to the loss of several of his teeth, that often, when at the full stretch of his voice, you do not know what particular words he is using.
(6) Duke of Wellington, letter to Mr. Gleig (11th April, 1831)
The conduct of government would be impossible, if the House of Commons should be brought to a greater degree under popular influence. That is the ground on which I stand in respect to the question in general of Reform in Parliament.
I confess that I see in thirty members for rotten boroughs, thirty men, I don't care of what party, who would preserve the state of property as it is; who would maintain by their votes the Church of England, its possessions, its churches and universities. I don't think that we could spare thirty or forty of these representatives, or with advantage exchange them for thirty or forty members elected for the great towns by any new system.
(7) The Observer (13th May, 1832)
At a quarter past twelve o'clock, the Royal carriage in which their Majesties were seated, without attendants, reached the village of Hounslow. The postillions passed on at a rapid rate till they entered the town of Brentford; where the people, who had assembled in great numbers, expressed by groans, hisses, and exclamations, their disapprobation of his Majesty's conduct with respect to the Administration. The Duke of Wellington had entered the Palace in full uniform about a quarter of an hour before the Majesties, and had been assailed by the people with groans and hisses. The Duke of Wellington, after remaining more than three hours with his Majesty, left about a quarter-past four, amidst groans and hisses even more vehement than when he arrived. Lord Frederick Fitzclarence was received with the same disapprobation, and loud cries of "Reform".
18 JUNE 1815 ----- THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO
In 1814 Napoleon had been exiled to the Island of Elba, but escaped to France in March 1815. Very quickly he managed to form a new army with which he wanted to reconquer his lost empire. The first part that he wanted to reconquer was Belgium and Holland. The European powers, at congress in Vienna, mobilized their armies to defeat Napoleon. Two major armies made their way to Belgium. The first one was an army consisting of divisions from different countries (Belgian, Dutch, British) under the command of the Duke of Wellington. The second army came from Prussia and was led by Marshal Blücher.
THE PRELIMINARY BATTLES AT LIGNY AND QUATRE BRAS.
The armies already clashed before the actual battle took place. Blücher and the Prussian army fought Napoleon at Ligny, a village north east of Charleroi on the 16th of June. However, Blücher and his troops were forced to retreat. A part of the army of the Duke of Wellington tried to drive the French army back at Quatre Bras, the crossroads of the Brussels-Charleroi and Namur-Nivelles roads. Also Wellington did not succeed and he had to retire to the plains south of Waterloo where he waited for the big confrontation on the 18th. Blücher managed to send a message to Wellington that he would be able to join him on the battlefield at Waterloo, but probably only later in the day. Napoleon thought that the Prussian army had been defeated and that he would only have to face the Wellington troops.
On the night before the battle it had rained heavily and both the French and Allied armies had spent the night in the mud and the pouring rain. The troops of Wellington occupied the northern part of the plains of Mont-Saint-Jean and were situated behind a sunken lane, which later proved to be a strategic advantage for the Duke, because the French infantry and cavalry kept fallen inside this sunken land and thereby hindering each other to move further north. The battlefield was situated around three large farmhouses . On the far left was the HOUGOMONT house, in the middle the HAIE SAINTE farm and at the extreme right was the PAPELLOTTE farm. The French offensive started at 12 0'clock when the farm of Hougomont was taken. Later during the day heavy fights took place around the farms of Haie Sainte and Papellote. By the late afternoon the chances for both armies were still fifty-fifty. But, around that time the Blücher's troops started to arrive coming from Wavre to assist the army of Wellington. By then, the French army was surrounded by the two forces and could no longer withstand the joint attacks of allied troops. By the beginning of the evening Napoleon had to withdraw his troops from the battlefield and start the escape back to France. Later, Blücher and Wellington met each other near the BELLE ALLIANCE farmhouse and congratulated each other with the final victory over Napoleon.
On the 18th of June 191.300 soldiers fought one of the most decisive battles in the history of Europe in only one day. The Wellington army had 67.000 soldiers, Blücher's army 52.300 and Napoleon's army 72.000. A total of 48.500 men fell or were severely wounded.
After the battle, the territory of the battlefield was given to the Wellington family by the newly formed state of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Later several monuments were erected in commemoration of the different army divisions who fought the battle of Waterloo.