1730 - 1795 (~ 64 years)
Has more than 100 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||Josiah Wedgwood |
|Relationship||with Francis Fox|
||12 Jul 1730
||3 Jan 1795
||Musgrave's Obituary And
||6 Jan 1795
||29 Aug 2000 |
||Sarah Wedgwood, b. 18 Aug 1734, d. 15 Jan 1815, Parkfields, Barlaston, Aged 80 (Age 80 years) |
||25 Jan 1764
| ||1. Susannah Wedgwood, c. 23 Jan 1765, Burslem, Sts , d. 13 Jul 1817, The Mount, Shrewsbury, Sal (Age ~ 52 years)|
| ||2. John Wedgwood, c. 2 Apr 1766, Burslem, Sts , d. 26 Jan 1844, Tenby, PEM (Age ~ 77 years)|
| ||3. Richard Wedgwood, c. 31 Jul 1767, Burslem, Sts , bur. 3 Jun 1768, Burslem, Sts (Age ~ 0 years)|
| ||4. Josiah Wedgwood, c. 6 Dec 1769, Stoke-On-Trent, Sts , d. 12 Jul 1843, Maer Hall, Sts (Age ~ 73 years)|
| ||5. Thomas Wedgwood, b. 14 May 1771, d. 11 Jul 1805 (Age 34 years)|
| ||6. Catherine Wedgwood, b. Nov 1774, d. Aug 1823, Shrewsbury - 'Circle' P.191 (Age ~ 48 years)|
| ||7. Sarah Wedgwood, b. Sep 1776, d. 6 Nov 1856, Petleys, Downe, Ken (Age ~ 80 years)|
| ||8. Mary Ann Wedgwood, b. Aug 1778, bur. 25 Apr 1786, Stoke-On-Trent, Sts (Age ~ 7 years)|
||29 Aug 2000 |
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
- master potter, founder of Wedgwood pottery company, Fellow of Royal Society, member of Lunar Society (as was Darwin's other grandfather Erasmus Darwin)
Josiah Wedgwood, the thirteenth and youngest son At the age of nine Josiah left school and joined the family business at Churchyard Works. When his father died Josiah was apprenticed to his elder brother.
After an attack of smallpox at the age of eleven, his health deteriorated and work as a potter became difficult. The disease affected his right leg and later it had to be amputated. Unable for a while to work as a potter, Josiah spent his time reading and researching about the craft of pottery.
In 1754 Josiah Wedgwood went into partnership with Thomas Whieldon. Later, Wedgwood ended the partnership and started his own business at Burslem. Wedgwood loved experimenting and invented what became known as green glaze. In 1763 he patented a beautiful cream-coloured pottery. As this was very popular with Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III, it became known as Queen's Ware.
Wedgwood now turned his attention to developing what was known as Egyptian Black objects. This included inkstands, salt-cellars, candlesticks, life-sized busts and vases. These black basaltes were sometimes decorated with encaustic colours, silvering, gilding or bronzing.
In 1762 Wedgwood met Thomas Bentley in Liverpool. The two became close friends and in 1768 became partners in a company producing ornamental vases. These were very popular and in 1771 Wedgwood built a new factory called Etruria where he employed famous artists such as John Flaxman to design his vases.
At Etruria Wedgwood greatly increased the output of his workers by introducing what later became known as "division of labour". This involved subdividing all the skills of the potter (mixing, shaping, firing and glazing) and allocating each job to a specialist worker.
Wedgwood was quick to realise the importance of canal transport. In 1766 he joined with the Duke of Bridgewater and James Brindley to start building the Trent & Mersey Canal. When the canal was completed in 1777 Wedgwood was able to bring Cornish clay to his Etruria factory. Wedgwood also used the canal to transport the finished goods by barge to Liverpool or Hull.
At this time Wedgwood became a Unitarian. Like most Unitarians, Wedgwood was a political reformer. He supported universal male suffrage and annual parliaments. He joined the Society for Constitutional Information and became friendly with other reformers such as Joseph Priestley, John Cartwright and the Duke of Richmond.
Wedgwood was also concerned with social reform. In 1787 he helped Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp, to form the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. Wedgwood joined the committee and also produced the Abolition Society's seal which showed a black slave in chains, kneeling, his hands lifted up to heaven. The motto read: "Am I Not a Man and a Brother?"
Wedgwood reproduced the design in a cameo with the black figure against a white background and donated hundreds of these to the Society for distribution. Thomas Clarkson wrote that "ladies wore them in bracelets, and others had them fitted up in an ornamental manner as pins for their hair. At length the taste for wearing them became general, and thus fashion, which usually confines itself to worthless things, was seen for once in the honourable office of promoting the cause of justice, humanity and freedom." Josiah Wedgwood did not see the end of the slave trade as he died
(1) Josiah Wedgwood, letter to Thomas Bentley (25th May, 1780)
I wish every success to the Society for Constitutional Information and if I was upon the spot should gladly not confine myself to wishes only. If at this distance I can in any way promote their truly patriotic designs, either by my money or my services, they are both open to you to command as you please. I rejoice to hear that the Duke of Richmond and Lord Selbourne are friends of annual parliaments. I agree with Major Cartwight "that every member of the state must either have a vote or be a slave".
(2) Josiah Wedgwood, letter to Anna Seward (February, 1788)
We are already possessed of a stock of negroes sufficient for every purpose of the cultivation and trade of our plantations; and consequently that our West India commerce could not be materially injured by prohibiting further importation; which prohibition appears to be the only probable means of withholding the heavy hand of cruelty and oppression from those who now groan under it. And even if our commerce was likely to suffer from the abolition, I persuade myself that when this traffic comes to be discussed and fully known, there will be few advocates for the continuance of it.
(3) After Joseph Priestley's house in Birmingham was destroyed by a mob, Josiah Wedgwood wrote a letter of sympathy (2nd September, 1781)
I persuade myself that you will rise still more splendid and more respected from what was intended to sink you. Your calmness and magnanimity on this trying occasion have put your enemies to shame. We esteem you in every point of view; and we are employed at this moment in drawing up a letter which is to be addressed to you by all the savants of the capital.