1648 - 1689 (~ 41 years)
Has 2 ancestors and one descendant in this family tree.
||John Graham |
|Relationship||with Francis Fox|
||27 Jul 1689
||9 Jun 2006 |
- of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount of Dundee
Educated at the University of St. Andrews, he served in the army of France, and subsequently, about 1674, in that of Holland. He distinguished himself at the battle of Seneffe, in Belgium, against the French, 11 August 1674.
In John Graham of Claverhouse, the Stuart Kings, Charles II and James II, had a servant who was ready to adventure himself to death on their behalf. In 1678 King Charles II made him Captain of one of the troops of Horse raised against the Covenanters, in which capacity he gained the name of 'Bloody Clavers'. His task was to go about the country to seek out Covenanters and to administer to them the test of confirmity. 'Will you abjure the Covenant?' he is supposed to have said. 'No? Soldiers, shoot!' Claverhouse appears to have been no worse than many a British officer who has been in the field against terrorists in India or Ireland, Palestine or Africa.
In 1682 he became Sheriff of Wigtown and, in 1684, gained a grant of the Castle of Dudhope and constabulary of Dundee. In 1684 he married Jean Cochrane, daughter of William Cochrane, Lord Cochrane. On 12 November 1688 he was created Viscount of Dundee, and Lord Grahame of Claverhouse. Then with the King in London, he endeavoured to dissuade him from retreating thence, offering himself to drive out the Dutch forces.
James II was not popular in Scotland but he had the advantage there of the support which Claverhouse was able to give him. After William and Mary had been proclaimed King and Queen of Scotland at Edinburgh, Claverhouse could only take to the hills. He called a Parliament at Stirling for King James II, and formed a small army of Camerons, Stewarts of Appin, Macdonalds, Macleans and the Macleods. With this tiny force he undertook the restoration of the Stuart King to the throne of his ancestors in Scotland.
Against him he had General Hugh Mackay, who had been a soldier of experience in the Low Countries and who had a regular army equipped with proper weapons, whereas Claverhouse's men had only what they could bring from their glens. However, Mackay, with twice the number of soldiers, allowed himself to be placed in an impossible position at Killiecrankie, which neutralized any superiority in numbers and he was unable to retreat for fear of an attack at the rear.
Meanwhile, Claverhouse's army waited until the sun had set on the opposite hills and was no longer in the eyes of the Highlanders, then gave orders to charge. The brief action that followed lasted less than an hour, bringing havoc to Mackay's army, but a bullet pierced Claverhouse and he fell mortally wounded. When William III heard the result of the battle, he exclaimed that there was no need to send more troops; Dundee (Claverhouse) being dead, all was over. 'Undauntedly brave, and steadily faithful to his Prince, he sacrificed himself in the cause of James II when he was deserted by all the world.' With him perished the Stuart cause in Scotland.