Abt 845 - 879 (~ 34 years)
Has 4 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||Ryurik von Novgorod |
|Relationship||with Francis Fox|
||Geneagraphie | Voorouders HW, Ahnen BvS
||19 Mar 2010 |
- af Rus
Rige ved Isborsk og Ladoga
Samlede rigerne 862
Prince of Novgorod
Prince of Belozerskiy and of Izborsk (864).
Really nowadays there are two important questions needed to be solved: the first is about identification of Rurik, the second is whether he was true founder of the Rurikovichi House. For a long time the problem of Ruruk's origin was rather political than simply historical one. Have You heard anything about "Norman theory"? It's discussion that has lasted for almost 250 years in Russia. The heart of the problem is if Rurik was the founder of state organization in ancient Russia (Kiev Russia) or aborigines had built it before. I am not going to dwell on this question; I mentioned it only to say that an ideological aspect put off the decision of Rurik problem for many years. First of all about Rurik origin. Histotians base on the text of the most early chronicle reached us: "The Nestor's Letopis". It was created in the middle of XII c. by monk of Kievo-Pechorski abbey. According to this document inhabitans of Novgorod, a city of Northen Russia, invited Rurik to rule in this city to defend against other Norman sea-robbers. It was happened in 862. The chronicle informs that Rurik took Ladoga, a very small town near Novgorod. After death of his two brothers, Sineus and Thruvor in 864, he got their possessions, Beloozero ("White lake") and Izborsk. Novgorod became Rurik's capital. There he died in 862. The chronicle says he gave the government to his relative Oleg as his son Igor was child. Sach way, in
accordance with Nestor chronical the beginning of Rurikovichi shows as:
1 Ruri=EA I Pr.of Novgorod (not Kiev !!!) d. 879
Pr. of Belozerskiy and of Izborsk (864)
2 Igor I Rurikivich Pr. of Kiev d. 945
3 Svjatoslav I Igorevich Pr. of Kiev b. Jul 942 d. 972 m. Predslav=
4 Jaropolk I Svjatoslavich Pr. of Kiev b. 961 d. 980 m. ?
4 Oleg Svjatoslavich Pr.of Drevljanskiy b. 962 d. 977
4 Wladimir I Svjatoslavich Gr.Pr.of Kiev d. 15 Jul 1015
In XVIII century Russian historian Tatishev in his "History of Russian State" named Rurik's wife, Efanda (sometimes Ingrid) of Urman. He informed also some interesting details about first Russian princes but unfortunately the documents which he used didn't reached us: they were lost while Napoleon's invasion in 1812. The chronicle says that Rurik came with their brothers, Sineus and Thruvor. Now it's proves that their names are wrong-translated into Russian (by Nestor or any of his predecessors) Scandinavian words "sine hus' (with his hause) and "tru voring"(with loyal guard) [sorry for my possible mistakes in spelling]. So Rurik was alone, without any brothers.
In 1920s it was expressed an opinion that Rurik of Kiev is the same Rorik of Denmark (or of Friesland). That person was one of the three sons of Halvdan, koning of Jutland. Halvdan had to leave his country ab. 782 and then he received Frisie enfeoff from Charlemagne. Rorik had part in christining of his brother Harald in Ingelheim upon Rhein, near Mainz (826). Harald came with his family and maybe his family, and Rorik too, were baptized. Halvdan had three sons: Harald, Rorik and Hemming and this fact conforms to story about two brothers of Rurik of Kiev. The time of action coincides (first half-middle of IX c.). There are also other coincidences. At that time, in accordance with Snorry Sturluson "Royal sagas" (begin.of XIII c.), we have in Norway konung Halvdan and his wife Ragnhilde, who had son Harald Finehairs. Snorry says that before Harald was born his mother had a dream: she saw luxuriant tree (speaking about future strong dynasty). The same legend said us Tatishev based on the losed documents. Tatishev tells about a certain Russian Prince Gostomysl, whose daughter Urmila was mother of Rurik of Kiev. She also had the such dream. Probably the Russian chronicle based on any Scandinavian one, more earlier. Russian phililogist Sreznevskiy, an outstanding expert of Slav languages in XIX c., considered that "Gostomysl" is neither Russian nor Eastslav name, it was widespread where WestBaltic Slavs lived. We even know a certain Gostomysl who was mentioned in "Fuld annales" in 844. The same time again! Last time Rorik of Jutland was mentioned in 882 as dead and Russian chronicle says that he died in 879. Quite really ! The difference is that Western annales inform he died in Frisie, his fief received from Charles the Bald, and Russian one in Novgorod. But we have real reasons to think that Rurik of Kiev and Rorik of Jutland are the same. But answering another question, if Rurik was the founder of the first Russian dynasty, we have to say no. The story about Rurik gave his power to Oleg is fantasy. Oleg and Igor (that time a child) didn't even try to stay in Novgorod, their native city, and at once moved to Kiev through Smolensk. It was unlogical step, because Kiev and Novgorod were bitterest enemis. The most documents of XII-XV c. didn't know Rurik, they originate Rurikovichi from Igor of Kiev. Name Rurik wasn't widespread in princely house, only at the close of XI c. we can see the first prince Rurik by name. Thank You for attention,