1712 - 1797 (84 years)
Has 20 ancestors and more than 100 descendants in this family tree.
||David George van Lennep |
|Relationship||with Francis Fox|
||05 Aug 1712
||Amsterdam, NH, NL
||13 Apr 1797
||14 Jan 2013 |
||Joris van Lennep, b. 1682, Amsterdam, NH, NL , d. 24 Oct 1736, Beverwijk (Age 54 years) |
||Hester van Halmael, b. Abt 1683, Amsterdam, NH, NL , d. 30 Jan 1730, Amsterdam, NH, NL (Age ~ 47 years) |
||04 Apr 1709
||Amsterdam, NH, NL
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
||Anna Maria Leidstar, b. 1734, d. 1802 (Age 68 years) |
||11 Apr 1758
| ||1. Hester Maria van Lennep, b. 26 Mar 1759, Smyrna , d. 08 Mar 1767, Smyrna (Age 7 years)|
|+||2. Elisabeth Clara van Lennep, b. 27 Feb 1760, Smyrna , d. 17 Mar 1834, London, Middlesex, England (Age 74 years)|
| ||3. Georg Justinus van Lennep, b. 02 Mar 1761, d. 23 Oct 1788, Smyrna (Age 27 years)|
| ||4. David van Lennep, b. 22 Jun 1762, d. 10 Jan 1782, Smyrna (Age 19 years)|
|+||5. Cornelia Jacoba van Lennep, b. 14 Sept 1763, d. 10 Oct 1839, Park Square, London (Age 76 years)|
|+||6. Anna van Lennep, b. 26 Aug 1765, d. 06 Nov 1839, Chézy (Age 74 years)|
|+||7. Hester Maria van Lennep, c. 16 Jul 1767, Smyrna |
|+||8. Jacob van Lennep, b. 04 Jul 1769, d. 01 Feb 1855, Smyrna (Age 85 years)|
|+||9. Sara Petronella van Lennep, c. 08 Sep 1771, Smyrna , d. 13 Jun 1854, Sevdikeuy (Age ~ 82 years)|
|+||10. Pieter van Lennep, b. 23 Apr 1778, Smyrna , d. 28 Oct 1824, Smyrna (Age 46 years)|
|+||11. Richard van Lennep, b. 15 Dec 1779, Smyrna , d. 07 Sep 1827, Smyrna (Age 47 years)|
||David George van Lennep met familie|
From left to right second row: Justinus Johannes Leidstar, Hester Maria van Lennep (1759-1767),…
||14 Jan 2013 |
||Group Sheet | Family Chart
- departed in August 1731 to Smyrna, chief merchant of the Dutch trading station and Counsel of the Dutch Nation in Smyrna, owned a country house in Sevdikeuy
- Together with Philippe de la Fontaine, who was five years older than himself, David George van Lennep left Holland for Smyrna in Turkey in 1731. Philippe?s older brother Abraham had gone out there several years earlier and worked there in association with Abraham Muyssart, who had opened an agency there around 1704.
However, when Abraham de la Fontaine married a Catholic girl there, the association with Muyssart was severed and he quit the company to be replaced by Philippe. Both the De la Fontaine and the Muyssart families had been associated with the Levant trade a long time. Note that the sister of Philippe and Abraham, Johanna Maria, would later become the mother-in-law of David George.
Smyrna is situated on the west coast of Asia Minor on a deep embayment which forms an excellent natural harbour. Although the city itself is surrounded by hills, several well-drained and fertile valleys running parallel east to west give easy acess to the hinterland of Anatolia. It had for very long been one of the most important trading posts, as a major end point of the Silk Route. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Smyrna and Constantinople had together developed as the most important Ottoman ports for trade with Western Europe. A sizeable colony of western European traders lived in Smyrna, generally along Frank Street, a thoroughfare parallel to the main quay of the port, with the merchants' houses fronting on the street and extending to the quay behind them.
David George van Lennep was registered as an independent Dutch merchant as early as December 1737, as indicated by a power of attorney he signed for the sale of a house belonging to his grandfather. Presumably he worked in the offices of Muyssart and De la Fontaine during the first few years and it is not certain when he branched out on his own.
The Dutch Republic signed a treaty of capitulation with the Ottoman emperor in 1612. This treaty stipulated that the Dutch merchants were free to trade under their own flag and practice their own religion as long as this took place in their own homes or at least behind closed doors. Furthermore, Dutch citizens were to be judged in both criminal cases and commercial disputes not under Ottoman law but under Dutch law within the domains of the Ottoman Empire. Such disputes were to be settled by appointees of the Dutch Republic, which in Smyrna meant the consul, a treasurer and some assessors nominated by the directors of the Levant trading authority upon recommendation of the Dutch Nation (The term ?Dutch Nation? corresponds to what we would refer to today as the Dutch community in Smyrna; this community was granted extraterritorial rights under the capirtulations). The only individuals eligible to represent the Dutch Nation were those agents of the Dutch merchant houses in Smyrna who had taken the oath committing themselves to follow the rules and regulations and truthfully declare the goods traded and not falsify the consular levies.
The Directie van den Levantschen handel en navigatie in de Middellandsche Zee (Directorate of Levant Trade and Navigation in the Mediterranean) was established in Amsterdam in 1625. This body had the supervisory responsibility for the fitting out of all vessels which passed through the Straits of Gibraltar, to verify and check their patents and bills of lading and maintain contact and correspond with the various consuls in the Levant and North Africa. In 1752 the directors of the Levant trade met to discuss a letter from the appointed assessors in Smyrna, Daniel Fremeaux, David van Lennep and Philip Clement in which the authors refuse to accept the posting of assessors, complaining about the extensive smuggling carried out by Greek, Jewish and Armenian traders, men not tied down by any oath and therefore causing very unfair competition. The three authors of the letter request also to be freed from taking that oath. The request was not accepted by the directors and all three remained assessors, David serving as assessor for the Dutch nation until his death in 1797.
It is certain that until 1756 David van Lennep worked in association with Dirk Knipping and Willem Enslie, but from 1758 Dirk Knipping seems to have gone elsewhere and David?s only partner was Willem Enslie. Even though Willem Enslie was choleric and short-tempered they apparently got along and remained partners for a long time. Only in 1792 did this partnership split up. David?s son Jacob writes:
There is no doubt that this separation has been a blessing not only for my father and the entire family and household, but also for our friends. He did much harm to the firm and made life difficult for all of us. The firm now continues under my father and myself, inasmuch as Mr. Denland and I now direct the company under the advice of my father, in fact we do not act without his consent . As Mr. Denland is a foreigner, a Swiss, he cannot be an associate of a Dutch trading company, so that he can only sign by proxy and be paid a salary. Friends like him are worth a fortune to a family like ours The firm had an extensive network of international contacts, exporting silk and angora wool thread from the interior of Turkey, and figs, citrus and other fruits from the islands in the Aegean sea. They imported rough cotton, linen, fine cloth, silver and gold cloth, coffee, sugar, indigo, herbs, pepper, porcelain and glass. Furthermore David's company was also the most important commercial bank in Smyrna, and finally the firm Van Lennep and Enslie together with the Amsterdam firm Thomas & Leonard de Vogel were part owners of the vessel ?De Vrouwe Catharina?, for which Van Lennep & Enslie represented the company as agents and brokers.
On the 11th of April 1758 David George married Anna Maria Leytstar in Smyrna. Her father Johan Justus had previously worked for his father Pietro Leytstar, who was a merchant in Galata and Pera, the Genoese enclave on the northeastern side of the Golden Horn of Constantinople. He had also acted as treasurer for the Dutch Nation in Constantinople, enjoying a notable degree of affluence. After the father died in 1736 the Leytstar firm rapidly fell into decline. The agency in Angora (Ankara) went bankrupt in 1739 and the following year the main seat of the company in Constantinople followed suit.
In 1741 Johan Justus fled with his wife and their two daughters to Smyrna; presumably Anna Maria was one of them as she too had been born in Constantinople. Their two adult sons went off to seek their fortune in a Christian country. Johan Justus would return to Angora to start an agency but in October 1757, after the death of his wife, he returned with his daughter Anna Maria to Smyrna.
Around 1770 the Swiss painter Antoine de Favray made a very fine family portrait of David?s family showing the oldest eight of the thirteen children as well as her father, a portrait which is currently in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.
David George had a large summer house built in Sevdikeuy. The house contained some twenty-seven large rooms, ?each room being as big as three normal ones? wrote Wagenvoort in his diary. He also describes the entry hall as being very large.
David George held a dominant position in the international commercial establishment of Smyrna, as attested by the various notable marriages of his children. The traveller Mathieu Dumas describes David George as the uncrowned king of the Dutch Colony and his house the rendezvous of the high society of Smyrna.
Sources: B.J. Slot, Het Consulaatsarchief Smyrna (1685 -1811), (The Hague 1988);
K. Heeringa, Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van den Levantse Handel, eerste deel 1590 - 1660, (The Hague 1910);
J. G. Nanninga, Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van den Levantse Handel, derde deel 1727 - 1765 en vierde deel 1765 - 1826, (The Hague 1952, 1964, 1966);
M. Hoenkamp-Mazgon, Palais de Hollande te Istanbul, Het Ambassadegebouw en zijn bewoners sinds 1612, (Amsterdam 2002);
J.W. Samberg: De Hollands Gereformeerde Gemeente te Smirna, de geschiedenis eener handelskerk, (proefschrift Leiden 1928);
E. Frangakis - Syrett, The Commerce of Smyrna in the eighteenth century (1700 - 1820), (Athens 1992); Friends and rivals in the East, studies in Anglo - Dutch relations in the Levant from the Seventeenth to the early Nineteenth Century, (Leiden 2000).
Maurits Wagenvoort, "Smyrna en zijn Hollandsche Kolonie", Op de Hoogte jaargang 1905;
F.J.E. van Lennep, "Een schilderij uit de Levant", from Late Regenten, (Haarlem 1962);
The Morier Family Papers, catalogued by Katherine Thomson, Library The Balliol College, Oxford;
Jan Schmidt, The Joys of Philology: Studies in Ottoman Literature, History and Orientalism (1500-1923), (Istanbul, 2002);
Henry McKenzie Johnston, Ottoman and Persian Odysseys: James Morier, Creator of Hajji Baba of Ispahan, and His Brothers, (London 1998).