Byzantine emperors

Constantinian dynasty (306-363)

    Emperor from
  Constantine "the Great"
(Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus)
25 July 306
Proclaimed "Augustus" upon the death of Constantius Chlorus
  Constantius II
 (Flavius Iulius Constantius)
22 May 337
Inherited Eastern third of Roman Empire upon his father's death
  Julian "the Apostate"
(Flavius Claudius Iulianus)
5 October 361
Proclaimed by his army in Gaul, became legitimate Emperor upon the death of Constantius

Non-dynastic (363-364)

    Emperor from
  Jovian
Ιοβιανός ( Flavius Claudius Iovianus )
28 June 363
Elected by the army upon Julian's death

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457)

    Emperor from
  Valentinian I
( Flavius Valentinianus )
26 February 364
Elected by the army upon Jovian's death
  Valens
( Flavius Iulius Valens )
28 March 364
Appointed by his brother
  Gratian
( Flavius Gratianus )
9 August 378
Inherited rule of the East upon the death of Valens
  Theodosius I
"the Great"
 ( Flavius Theodosius )
19 January 379
Appointed by Gratian
  Arcadius
( Flavius Arcadius )
17 January 395
Upon the death of Theodosius I
  Theodosius II Θεοδόσιος Β'
( Flavius Theodosius )
1 May 408
Upon the death of Arcadius
  Pulcheria
( Aelia Pulcheria )
28 July 450
Upon the death of Theodosius II
  Marcian
( Flavius Valerius Marcianus )
450
Upon his marriage to Pulcheria

Leonid dynasty (457-518)

    Emperor from
  Leo I "the Thracian"
(Flavius Valerius Leo )
7 February 457
Chosen by Aspar, commander-in-chief of the army
  Leo II
( Flavius Leo )
18 January 474
Succeeded his grandfather Leo I
  Zeno
( Flavius Zeno )
(Born Tarasicodissa)
Co-emperor: 9 February 474
Appointed by his son Leo II
Sole Emperor: 17 November 474
Succeeded upon the death of Leo II
  Basiliscus
( Flavius Basiliscus )
9 January 475
Seized power from Zeno
  Zeno, restored
( Flavius Zeno ) (Born Tarasicodissa)
restored August 476
Having deposed Basiliscus
  Anastasius I
( Flavius Anastasius )
11 April 491
Chosen by Ariadne, widow of Zeno

Justinian dynasty (518-602)

    Emperor from
  Justin I
 (Flavius Iustinus )
July 518
Elected by army and people upon the death of Anastasius I
  Justinian I the Great
(Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)
1 August 527
Inherited the throne on the death of Justin I
  Justin II
 (Flavius Iustinus Iunior)
14 November 565
Inherited the throne on the death of Justinian I
  Tiberius II Constantine
 (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
5 October 578
Became full Emperor on the death of Justin II
  Maurice Μαυρίκιος
(Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)
14 August 582
Succeeded upon the death of his father-in-law Tiberius II

Non-dynastic (602-610)

    Emperor from
  Phocas
(Flavius Phocas )
November 602
Seized power in a rebellion against Maurice

Heraclian dynasty (610-711)

    Emperor from
  Herakleios
Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius)
5 October 610
Seized power in a rebellion against Phocas
 

Constantine III
Herakleios Néos Kōnstantinos

Heraclius Novus Constantinus

11 February 641
Succeeded to throne with Heraklonas following death of Herakleios
  Heraklonas
(Kōnstantinos Herakleios) Heraclianus
11 February 641
Succeeded to throne with Constantine III following death of Herakleios
  Constans II
born Herakleios Constantine
(Herakleios Kōnstantinos );
called "Constantine the Bearded" Constans II
(Constantus II)
641
Made co-Emperor by Hereklonas, sole emperor in that same year
  Mezezius 668
  Constantine IV
(Κωνσταντίνος Δ', Kōnstantinos) Constantine
15 September 668
succeeded following murder of Constans II
  Justinian II Ιουστινιανός Β' Co-emperor in 681, sole emperor in 685.
  Leontios Λεόντιος 695
  Tiberios III Τιβέριος 698
  Justinian II Ιουστινιανός Β' 705

Non-dynastic (711-717)

    Emperor from
  Philippikos December, 711
  Anastasios II June 713
  Theodosios III May 715

Isaurian dynasty (717-802)

    Emperor from
  Leo III the Isaurian 25 March 717
  Constantine V Co-ruler in 720, senior ruler in 741
  Artabasdos Rival emperor from June 741/2
  Leo IV the Khazar Co-ruler in 751, senior ruler in 775
  Constantine VI Co-ruler in 776, sole emperor in 780
  Irene of Athens August 797

[Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)

    Emperor from
  Nikephoros I Νικηφόρος Α' 31 October 802
  Staurakios Σταυράκιος Co-ruler in 803, senior ruler in 811
  Michael I Rangabe Μιχαήλ Α' 2 October 811

Non-dynastic (813-820)

    Emperor from
  Leo V the Armenian 11 July 813

Phrygian dynasty (820-867)

    Emperor from
  Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian 25 December 820
  Theophilus 2 October 829
  Theodora 842
  Michael III the Drunkard 842

Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)

    Emperor from
  Basil I the Macedonian 867
  Leo VI the Wise 886
  Alexander 912
  Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos 15 May 908
  Romanos I Lekapenos 17 December 920
  Romanos II Porphyrogennetos November 959
  Nikephoros II Phokas 16 August 963
  John I Tzimiskes 11 December 969
  Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer 10 January 976
  Constantine VIII 15 December 1025
  Zoe 15 November 1028
  Romanos III Argyros 15 November 1028
  Michael IV the Paphlagonian 11 April 1034
  Michael V the Caulker 10 December 1041
  Theodora 20 April 1042
  Constantine IX Monomachos 11 June 1042
  Theodora 11 January 1055

Non-dynastic (1056-1057)

    Emperor from
  Michael VI Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' September, 1056

Komnenid dynasty (1057-1059)

    Emperor from
  Isaac I Komnenos 5 June 1057 as rival emperor, sole emperor since 31 August 1057

Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)

    Emperor from
  Constantine X Doukas 24 November 1059
 
  Michael VII Doukas Quarter-short 22 May 1067
 
  Romanos IV Diogenes 1067
 
  Nikephoros III Botaneiates 31 March 1078
 

Komnenid dynasty (1081-1185)

    Emperor from
  Alexios I Komnenos 4 April 1081
  John II Komnenos 1118
  Manuel I Komnenos 1143
  Alexios II Komnenos 1180
  Andronikos I Komnenos 1183

Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)

    Emperor from
  Isaac II Angelos 1185
  Alexios III Angelos 1195
  Isaac II Angelos 1203
  Alexios IV Angelos 1203
  Nikolaos Kanabos 25 January 1204
  Alexios V Doukas 5 February 1204

Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261)

    Emperor from
  Constantine Laskaris Claimant emperor in 1204
  Theodore I Laskaris proclaimed 1205, crowned 1208
  John III Doukas Vatatzes December, 1221
  Theodore II Laskaris proclaimed 4 November 1254 crowned 1255
  John IV Laskaris 18 August 1258

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1261-1453)

    Emperor from
  Michael VIII Palaiologos 1 January 1259 as co-emperor, senior emperor since 25 December 1261
  Andronikos II Palaiologos nominal co-emperor in September, 1261, crowned in 1272. Senior emperor on 11 December 1282
  Michael IX Palaiologos co-emperor in 1281, crowned in 1294/1295.
  Andronikos III Palaiologos co-emperor in 1316, rival emperor since July, 1321. Senior emperor on 24 May 1328.
  John V Palaiologos Emperor in 15 June 1341
  John VI Kantakouzenos rival emperor on 26 October 1341, senior emperor on 8 February 1347.
  Matthew Kantakouzenos co-emperor on 15 April 1353, rival emperor since 4 December 1354.
  John V Palaiologos co-emperor in 1347, rival emperor in 1352. Senior Emperor on 4 December 1354
  Andronikos IV Palaiologos co-emperor c. 1352, Senior Emperor on 12 August 1376
  John V Palaiologos Senior Emperor on 1 July 1379
  John VII Palaiologos Co-emperor from 1376 to 1379, senior emperor on 14 April 1390.
  John V Palaiologos Senior Emperor on 17 September 1390
  Manuel II Palaiologos Co-emperor in 1373, Senior Emperor on 16 February 1391
  Andronikos V Palaiologos co-emperor c. 1403
  John VIII Palaiologos Co-emperor c. 1416, sole emperor on 21 July 1425
  Constantine XI 6 January 1449

Palaiologan Dynasty (claimants in exile)

    Emperor from
  Demetrios Palaiologos 1453
  Thomas Palaiologos 1453
  Andreas Palaiologos 12 May 1465
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